To understand the true meaning of this book you must apply the
The four subsidiary means of reasoning:
- Listening or reading most attentively with a calm mind to the lectures of a learned man, and more so if the subjects are a divine Science because it is the most abstruse and the subtlest of all the sciences.
- Thinking over what one has heard or read in retirement, and in removing doubts if there be any by questioning the speaker. Questions may sometimes be asked even in the middle of a discourse if the speaker and the audience think proper.
- Rationalizing is the next step.
When all doubts are cleared after hearing or reading discourse and
thinking over it, let the enquirer enter into the superior condition and
see for himself by the help of yoga (self-realization through meditation)
whether it is the same as he had heard and reasoned out or not.
- The result is the correct
knowledge of the nature, properties and characteristics of the desired
| An exposition and a refutation of the Charvaka, Buddhist and Jain faiths .|
Q. - Why did God get Himself involved in the troubles and worries of the world, when He is Eternal, Beginningless, Conscious, All-Blissful and All-knowledge? Even an ordinary man would not give up his pleasures and take to what entails pain and suffering, why should God have done such a thing?
A. ~ The Supreme Spirit is never involved in troubles and worries of the world, nor does He ever give up His Blissful state, since he that is circumscribed is involved in pain and ignorance but not one who is All-pervading. Who but the Eternal, Conscious, All-Blissful and Omniscient Supreme Spirit could create the world.
The soul does not possess the power of creating the world nor does inert matter possess the power to mould itself, hence it is the Supreme Spirit alone Who creates the world and also remains in blissful state. Just as God has created this world out of the material atoms, likewise it is He who has ordained that children should be born of their parents, - their efficient cause.
Q. - Why did God give up the bliss of Emancipation and bother Himself with the creation, sustenance and dissolution of the universe?
A. ~ God is Ever-free and Eternal. He does not act like your Tirthankaras who lived in one place and were in bondage before they were emancipated. He that possesses an infinite nature, infinite powers, infinite attributes, infinite activity does not become subject to bondage by creating, sustaining and dissolving this little - compared to God - world.
Bondage and emancipation are correlated. Bondage has reference to Emancipation and vice versa. How could emancipation be predicted of Him Who was never in bondage. It is the circumscribed soul that becomes subject to bondage and emancipation. The Infinite, All-pervading, Omnipresent God does not become subject to bondage or emancipation, dependent upon particular causes. That Supreme Spirit is, therefore, called Ever-free.
Q. - The soul can reap the fruits of its deeds without the instrumentality of a higher power even as intoxicants such as
Indian hemp (Cannabis Indica) inebriates a man without any extrinsic aid. Hence, God is not the giver of fruits (of deeds).
A. ~ Just as a dacoit or a burglar does not voluntarily go to jail, nor does (a homicide) of his free-will, mount the gallows it is the king by whom those sentences are executed.
Likewise God justly punishes the soul for its sins in accordance with the laws ordained by Him because no soul wants to suffer punishment for its evil deeds. Hence the necessity of a Just Ruler of the Universe is established.
Q. - There is not one God in the universe, all the emancipated souls become God.
A. ~ This assertion is altogether assured, because the soul, being emancipated after having been in bondage, must necessarily become subject to bondage again, because it is not free by nature. Your twenty-four Tirthankaras were in bondage before they were emancipated, hence they will necessarily become subject to bondage again. If there are many gods, don't they quarrel and wrangle with each other just as men do here?20. Did the universe come into existence by itself?
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Q. -O, Idiot! There is no Maker of this world. The Universe has come into existence by itself.
A. ~ This is a great blunder of Jainees. Can an act ever be done without a doer? Can an effect ever come into being without any effort on the part of the doer? Has anyone ever seen wheat being ground into flour and flour made into bread without the agency of man and the bread going without any effort on their part down the throats of the Jainees?
Cotton is never seen to be transformed except through the instrumentality of man, into thread and clothes such as a coat, a dhoti,* a handkerchief, a jacket, a turban in the cotton fields before it is sent into towns? When such is not the case, how could this multifarious world with its wonderful construction, come into being without a Maker?
If you, through sheer prejudice, hold on to the belief that the universe came into being without the instrumentality of a higher power, you ought to prove to us by ocular demonstration that the above-mentioned articles, such as clothes, come into existence without the agency of man. When you can't do it, how can a sensible man, then, ever believe in your most unwarrantable statements.
* Clothing covering the lower half of the body (male).
Q. - Is God Virakta (one who has renounced all pleasure) or Mohita (one who is attached to worldly objects)? If HE is Virakta why did He bother himself about creating this world? But if He is Mohita, He could not possess the power to create the world.
A. ~ Neither Vairagya (Renunciation) nor Moha (infatuation) can be predicated of God because He that is all-pervading can neither accept nor renounce anything. There is nothing higher than God, nor is there anything that is unattainable to Him, hence He cannot be attached to anything. Renunciation and infatuation can be predicated of the soul and not of God.
Q. - Should you hold that God created the world and gives souls the fruits of their deeds, He would be involved in the manifold affairs of this world and will consequently be afflicted with misery.
A. ~ When a righteous, and learned judge of this world, who discharges manifold duties and awards men just fruits of their deeds, does not get involved in his affairs nor is afflicted with miser, why should the Great God, possessed of Infinite powers, be involved in the affairs of this world, and afflicted with misery?
You, through your ignorance, seem to think that God is also like you or one of your Tirthankaras. Now, this is the result of your lack of knowledge. Should you desire to rid yourself of your ignorance and the like evils you should depend on the Veda and other Shaastraas for guidance. Oh, why do you doubt and stumble?21. Discussion of the Scriptural aphorisms of the Jain religion.
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Now we shall show, on the authority of their (scriptural) aphorisms, what the beliefs of the Jainees with regard to the universe are. We shall briefly give the meaning of the Sutras (Scriptural aphorisms) and then discuss them in order to show how far they are right and how far wrong.
"This world has no beginning nor an end. Neither it was ever created, nor will it ever perish; in other words, this world has never been created by anyone." Ratnasara Part2: 60, 2.
In the above-mentioned discussion on theism and atheism it has been stated.
O, idiot! There is no creator of the world. It was never made, nor will it ever perish." (A discussion between Mahavira and Gautama)
A. ~ That which is the result of combination (of different elements) can never be beginningless or endless. An effect must have a beginning as well as an end. All objects of this world are the result of the combination of their constituent elements, and are subject to creation and dissolution, why is not this world, then, subject to creation and dissolution, had your Tirthankaras possessed correct knowledge, they would not have written such impossible things (in their books).
You are as ignorant as the founders of your faith were. A man who believes what you Jainees say can never know the true nature of things. Why can't you believe that which is clearly the result of the combination of its constituent elements is subject to creation and dissolution? It is clear then, of the teacher of the founders of the Jain religion were not acquainted with the sciences of Geography and Astronomy, nor do the Jainees, at the present moment, possess any knowledge of these subjects, otherwise how could they have believed in, and taught, the under-mentioned incredible things.
Mark! According to the Jains, even the earth is the body of a soul: they also believe in such creatures whose bodies are made of water. No man could ever believe in such things.
Now, here are a few samples of the false teachings of their Tirthankaras whom the Jains believe to be possessed of correct knowledge and the state of God-head.22. Time or age of creation.
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Time has been described in the Ratnasarabhaga [The Jainees believe this book to be authoritative. It was printed and published at the Jain prabhakar Press, Benares, by Nanak Chand Jati, on the 28th April, 1879 A.D.] on page 145 thus:-
Samya is called Sukshmakala (smallest period of time).
Asankhyata Samyas =Avati[7,000,000x10,000,000+56,000x10,000,000] Varshas= 1Purva.
1, 67, 70, 216 avalis =Muhurtta.
30 Muhurittas =1Divasa (day).
15 Divasas =1 Paksha (fortnight).
2 Pakshas =1 Masa (month)
12 Masas =1 Varsha (year).
Asankhyata Purvas = 1 Palyopamakala.
Now, as to the exposition of the meaning of the word Asankhyata.
Let a pit, square in shape, each side of which is four Kisas* ling and the same in-depth be dug, let it be filled with pieces of the hairs of the body of juguli men in the following manner:-
The hair of a juguli man is , 4,096 times finer than that of an ordinary man of our days, in other words, 4,096 hairs of a juguli man make one hair of an ordinary man.
Now, take the hair of a juguli man about one finger's breadth and length and divide it into 8 parts and then repeat this process seven times and you get altogether 2,097,152 pieces. Fill the above-described pit with such pieces of hair. Then get one piece of hair out of the pit in 100 years, when all the pieces of hair have been removed in this way and the pit is emptied, the time occupied by this process is still Sankhyata (not Asankhyata).
When each of those pieces is again divided into Asankhyata pieces and the pit is again filled with such pieces of hair so compactly that even if the army of an Emperor of the whole earth were to pass over the pit, it should not make any impressions on it. Then let each piece of hair be taken out once in one hundred years when that pit is thus emptied, the period covered by the whole process is called Purva,. Such Asankhyata Purvas make one Palyopamakals.
10,000,000 x 100,000,000 Palyopamakals = 1 Sagaropama kala.
1,000,000 x 10,000,000 Sagaropawakals = 1 Utsarpani.
1 Utsarpani+1 Avasarpani = 1 Kala Chakrat Kala (or one cycle of time).
Ananta Kalachakras = 1 pudgala paravrita. Ananta Kala is that which is beyond the calculation of time given in the Jain Scriptures and has been exemplified by nine illustrations.
Such Ananta Pudgala paravritas have passed since the soul has been wondering about.
Now, will you, mathematicians be able to calculate the time given in the Jain books, and will you be able to believe it to be correct? The Tirthankaras of the Jainees had studied a novel kind of mathematics, such are the teachers and followers of the Jain faith. Their ignorance is unfathomable. We give here a few more specimens of their dense ignorance.
* 1 mile = 1 and three quarter Kosa. 'n some parts of India 2 miles = 1 kosa. -Tr.
In the Ratnasarabhaga, on page 133, it begins what is called the essence of the Jain Scriptures written by their Tirthankaras from Rishabhdeva to Mahavira who are 24 in number. 23. The bodies of plants and creatures.
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On page 148 of the same book, it is written that the clay and stones, which are different forms of earth, should be regarded as Prithvi Kayu creatures. The bodies of such creatures are the minutest part of a finger's breadth, in other words, they are very small. Their age is 22,000 years at the most.
There are countless souls in one plant. These are called ordinary plants. Bulbous roots, roots, etc., and Anantakyay, etc., are the souls of ordinary plants. Their age is Anta muhurtta, but this muhurtta is the Jain Muhurtta that has been described above. The simple plant s one which possesses only one sense, (i.e., of touch) and only one soul. the body of such a soul measures 4,000 yojanas in length. [According to the believers in the Puraanas, 1 yojana = 4 kosas but, according to the Jains, 1 yojana - 10,000 kosas.] Its age is, at the most 10,000 years. (Ratnasarbharga page 149).
Now, we come to the souls which possess a body with two senses, i.e. one body and the other mouth, such as a conch-shell and a louse. Their physical bodies measure, at the most, 48 kosas in length and their age, at the most, is 12 years. The writer has made a mistake here. A creature with such a big body should have a longer duration of life.
Lice with bodies 48 kosas long will surely be found on the bodies of the Jainees alone and they alone must have seen them. Other people could never be so lucky as they.
Their scorpions, bugs. and flies have bodies 1 yojana long. (Ratnasarbhaga page 15o) Their age, at the most, is 6 months. We are sure no one besides the Jainees has ever seen a scorpion 8 miles long. Scorpions and flies 8 miles long are to found according to the Jain faith alone. Such scorpions and flies must be surely found in the houses of Jainees alone and they alone in the whole world must have seen them. Should one of such scorpions sting a Jainee, it is hard to imagine how he would suffer.
The watery creatures such as fish have bodies 1,000 yojanas. One yojana being equal to 10,000 kosas, the body of a water creature must be 10,000,000 kosas long. Their age is 10,000,000 Purva varshas. None but the Jainees could eve have seen such big creatures. The bodies of quadrupeds, such as elephants, range between 2 and 9 losas in length and their age are 84,000 years. No one but he Jainees could ever have seen them,
and it is they alone who could believe in their existence. No sensible man could believe in such things.
The mammals that live in water have bodies 1,000 yojanas or 10,000,000 kosas long and their age is 100,000,000 years. (Ratnasarabhaga page 151). The founders of the Jain faith alone must have seen such animals with such huge bodies in their dreams. Now are these not huge lies? These things are so utterly incredible.24. Measurements of the earth.
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Now, we come to the measurements of the earth:-
On this crooked planet there are Asankhyata lands and Asankhyata oceans. By the term, Asankhyata is here meant the period covered by 2 and a half Sagaropamkala. On this earth, Jambudwipa is in the midst of all islands. Its area is 100,000 yojanas or 1,000,000,000 kosas. This island is surrounded on all sides by the salt sea. Its are is 200,000 yojanas or 2,000,000,000 kosas. Next to it is the ocean called Kalodadhis; its area is 8,000,000,000 kosas. Further back is Pushkaravarta island. Its interior is divided into zones. One-half of it is occupied by men. Further than this, there are countless oceans and islands in which crawling creatures live. (Ratnasarbhaga page 153).
In the Jambu island there are 6 continents:-
1. Himavanta. 2. Airanyavanta. 3. Harivarsha. 4. Ramyaka. 5. Devakru. 6. Uttarkuru.
A. ~ Geographer please! Have you made a mistake in taking measurements of the earth or the Jainees? Will you please correct the Jainees of it be their mistake or correct yourselves if you have made a mistake. Anyhow settle this little matter between yourselves. A little reflection will show that the writers of the Jain scriptures and their disciples were quite ignorant of Geography, Astronomy, and Mathematics.Had they been conversant with these branches of knowledge, why would they have concocted such cock-and-bull stories? No wonder! Such people believe the universe to be uncreated and deny the existence of God.
The Jainees do not let learned men of other faiths have their books to read, because the books they believe to have been written by their reliable Tirthankaras are full of such things as are opposed to the dictum of knowledge. They do not let other people see them, lest someone might expose their absurdities. No one, besides the
Jains, who possesses a grain of sense can ever believe in such yarns. They have introduced all these absurdities, in order to prove that the world is beginningless, but is altogether wrong.
It is true though that the material cause of the world (called prakriti) is beginningless, because that paramanus - the minutest particles of matter which cannot be further divided by any means are the basic principles and are uncreated, but they do not possess any power for ordered formation and disintegration. The paramanus are simple entities. They are separate from each other and inert by nature. They cannot combine with each other in an ordered manner, hence it is imperative that there should be a Conscious Being to combine them who should also be Omniscient.
It is the work of the Beginningless, Eternal, Conscious Supreme Spirit to regulate the sun and the earth and other planets. The physical world, in which combination (of different elements) and special design are to be seen, can never beginningless.
Should you believe the effect to be beginningless, it will have no cause; in other words, it will be both an effect and its own cause and, therefore, atmashrayi. But this can never be true since a man cannot stand on his own shoulders, nor can one become his own father or son. Hence the necessity of a Maker of the Universe is clearly demonstrated.25. If God is the Maker, who is His Maker?
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Q. - If God is held the Maker of the universe, Who is His Maker?
A. ~There can be no Maker of the (first) Maker, the Cause of the (firsts) Cause. It is only because the first Maker or the First Cause exists that (the world - ) and effect - comes into being. That of which combination (with others) or separation (from them) cannot be predicted and which is the cause of the first combination or disintegration can never have another maker or cause.
This subject has been fully discussed in the 8th chapter of this book. The reader is advised to consult that Chapter for further information. How can the Jainees understand the abstruse Science of Cosmogony when they do not even properly understand simple and easy things?
The belief of the Jainees with regard to the world is beginningless and endless, to formation in each substratum being also beginningless and endless, and to attribute each substratum being also endless which is recorded in the Prakaranratnakar is quite untenable, because attributes and other characteristics that are finite must have an end. Even if by the world endless you
mean countless, you cannot be right. It may be alright from the point of view of the soul but cannot be true from that of God.
The belief that because each object of the world is distinct from all objects and cannot be classified with any other objects, possesses the power of producing an effect, of being transformed into its causal forms and, because there are an endless number of objects in the world, the number of forms will be infinite, and the power residing in objects will also be infinite betrays the ignorance (of the Jainees).
How could a paramanu (an atom) contain endless unclassified formations when it has limits? In like manner, it is childish to believe that an object can possess endless formations in its attributes, because when space has limits how can its contents be endless? There are many other cock-and-bull stories told in the scriptures of the Jainees.
Now, we shall set forth (and discuss) the belief of the Jainees with regard to Jiva (the soul) and ajiva (inert matter). In the Jindatsuri it is written:-
"What possesses consciousness is Jiva (the soul) and that which is devoid of it is ajiva (dead, inert matter). Good and righteous atoms constitute virtue and evil atoms constitute vice."
A. ~ The soul and inert matter have, of course, been rightly defined, but it is wrong to say that the inert atoms are righteous or vicious, for, the power of doing the right and wrong can exist only in a conscious entity. Mark! All inert substances are incapable of doing deeds - good or bad.
The doctrine of the immortality of the human spirit is sound, but it is foolish to believe that the human soul, whose capacities are limited, can, when emancipated, attain to a state of omniscience, for whatsoever is finite can never attain infinite power.
The Jains believe that the universe, the soul, the actions of the soul, and the concatenation of births, and deaths are eternally co-existent. Here, too, it seems, that Tirthankaras of the Jains have fallen into an error, for it is impossible that the created universe (i.e., the world which is the product of the combination of elements), the natural process called into being after creation, the actions of men and metempsychosis should be eternal.
If it is so, how can the Jainees believe consistently that the concatenation of existences and the necessity of doing deeds may come to an end? Whatever is eternal can have no end. If it is said that eternal substances are subject to destruction, all eternal substances believed in by the Jainees will naturally be
thought to be capable of existing only for a limited period .if, however, the word eternal be taken to mean "that which can never come to an end" it is impossible not to believe that human actions and metempsychosis will exist forever.
This being the case, it is clear that salvation, being dependent on a particular cause, viz., the temporary cessation of actions, will last only for that limited period and not forever. Moreover, on account of the relation between the doer and his actions being perpetual, actions will never cease to exist. The conclusion subverts the Jain beliefs that the Tirthankaras have attained salvation forever and that the ordinary Jainees can also attain to that state.26. Is the emancipation of the soul eternal?
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Q. - If a rice-grain be divested of its outer covering or be brought in contact with fire, the seed cannot grow; even so, a soul once emancipated (from physical bondage) can never again become subject to births and deaths.
A. ~ The relation between the soul and the necessity of doing deeds does not resemble that which subsists between a rice-grain and its outer covering. It is one of the inseparable inherence. The soul is eternal and from eternity action and the soul's power of doing deeds are intimately related. If it is believed that the human spirit is devoid of the power of doing deeds it will naturally follow that all souls are inert like stones and, , therefore, incapable of enjoying the bliss which falls to the share of emancipated spirits.
If the soul is emancipated from the bondage of actions, the power of doing which has inhered in the soul from eternity, ti will surely after attaining salvation which (according to the Jain belief) is perpetual, again become subject to metempsychosis, for it is possible that a soul being freed from the necessity of doing deeds - which are the means of salvation - can attain to the state of final beatitude, it is equally possible for it to revert from perpetual salvation to the bondage (of births and deaths).
An effect which is due to the operation of certain causes can never be perpetual. If, however, you believe that salvation is attainable without the adoption of the means of attaining it, what then is the difficulty in believing the soul's (reversion to the state of) bondage is possible without its being under the necessity of doing deeds,
A piece of cloth which has become dirty on account of contact with dirt is cleaned by washing, and can again become dirty; similarly, the soul is placed under the necessity of doing deeds when it has committed sins like dissimulation and been dominated by malice, etc. If you believe that the soul has purified
by the attainment of true knowledge, by keeping good company and by righteous conduct and is contaminated if the causes which go to contaminate it are in operation, you cannot escape the conclusion that souls in a state of emancipation can revert to the bondage (of births and deaths) and vice versa, for it adventitious circumstances can remove dirt, they can, likewise, bring on pollution. The sound belief, therefore, is that the soul has been subject to metempsychosis and emancipation since creation and is not so eternal.27. Is the soul always pure or somewhat contaminated?
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Q. - The soul was never pure. It is always (somewhat) contaminated.
A. ~ If it was never quite pure, it cannot ever be so. It is possible to remove by washing the dirt that may have soiled a sheet originally clean, but it is impossible to remove its naturally white color. The dir can soil the sheet again, even if it has been once washed; similarly, the emancipated soul can be branded once again with the taint of sin.<28. The belief of reincarnation without the existence of God.
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Q. - It is foolish to believe in the existence of God, for a man can take on a new body as a result of deeds done in the past birth.
A. ~ If it is in the power of the soul to take on a new body without Divine instrumentality, it is inconceivable that it will, of its own free will, be re-incarnated amidst happy environments.
The plea that the soul is subject to the fruits of its deeds will not hold good, for even a thief does not go to jail voluntarily, nor does (a homicide) mount the gallows of his own free will. It is the king by whose authority these sentences are executed. You cannot, therefore, but believe that God exists in order to cause the soul to take on new bodily forms and to reward or punish it according to its (good or evil) deeds.
Q. - Even as drinking causes intoxication (without extrinsic aid) so does the soul receive the fruits of its deeds without the instrumentality of any other power.
A. ~ This is absurd! Inveterate drunkards do not fell the effects of intoxication as do those who are not addicted to the
vice. If your contention is right, those that are sinners of the deepest dye should be punished less severely than those who are not given much to sinful practices.
Q. - Each man is punished according to his natural instincts.
A. ~ If the punishment is due to natural instincts, it cannot be predicated of it that it has begun or ended (for it must always endure). (It is, therefore, clear that the award of reward or punishment is not due to adventitious causes) even as accidental causes soil the clean sheet and their removal restores to it its former purity.
Q. - the combination is essential to the production of a result, just as clarified butter cannot be produced unless milk and some acid thing are combined. Why not, then, believe that (reward or punishment) is the result of the union of the soul with an action?
A. ~ Milk and an acid thing are combined through the instrumentality of a third entity. There ought, therefore, be a third entity - God - to establish a relationship between the souls and the fruits of the deeds done by it, for inert substances can never, of themselves, combine methodically and the soul, being possessed of finite power, cannot of itself, receive the fruits of its actions. This shows that, without the operation of laws made by God, the system of rewards and punishment according to deeds done by men cannot work.
Q.- Whoever is freed from the necessity of doing deeds (attains salvation and) becomes God.
A. ~ The power of doing actions, being eternally inherent in the soul, the latter can never be deprived of it.
Q. - The necessity of doing deeds is not beginningless.
A. ~ If it is so, there must have been a time when the soul was incapable of doing deeds, and thus the capacity of doing actions was planted in an entity that did not possess it. Why cannot, then emancipated souls be made to perform deeds? The relation between the doer and the deeds is of an inseparable character and can never cease. What we have written on this subject in the 9th Chapter is, therefore, worthy of belief. The soul can never be equal to God, no matter how extensive its knowledge and power
are, these latter being necessarily limited. Of course, by force of psychic practices, the soul can secure the development of its knowledge to the greatest possible extent. The arhats among the Jainees believe that, like the body, the soul also possesses the property of extension. This is absurd, for, if it is so, the soul of a little insect could not be contained in the body of an elephant and vice versa.
The soul is a fine entity that can reside even in an atom. Its powers, however, are linked with nervauric and electric forces and the nerves, etc., and it is, therefore, kept informed of all that goes on in the body. If healthy influences operate, it becomes virtuous, and if unhealthy influences operate, it becomes sinful. The following verses clearly set forth the Jain beliefs:-
(1)O man! Only by following that Dharma pain and caused by the concatenation of births and deaths and pursuit of mundane aims is destroyed which has been expounded by a deified Jain saint (lit. one who has subdued his passions). Do thou believe that only Jain preceptors are good teachers and real Devas; Brahma, Harihar and in fact all except the Jain saints, the first of whom was named Rishabhdeva and the last Mahavir, are not worthy of adoration. Whoever worships them with the desire of securing his well-being is a dupe." The upshot of all this is that no good accrue if one does not follow the good Jain faith and its good saints and follows the bad religion and the so-called saints of others.
A. ~ Learned men should mark how stupid the Jain scriptures are.
The regeneration of people groveling in misery is only possible if they follow the system of conduct expounded by Jin who is the God of gods, glorious deified saint, possessed of all knowledge, the expounder of scriptures, pure, free from the stain of vice -, possessed of the qualities of mercy and clemency.
The religion taught by Harihar is not such as can promote the well-being of the world.
The four virtues expounded by the supreme saints are exalted. They are:-
(1) Mercy, (2) forgiveness, (3) possession of correct knowledge, (4) good company and good conduct.
A. ~ If mercy is not shown to all mankind, it is of no use. The same may be said of forgiveness. It is not good to remain ignorant while boasting of knowledge, to grope in the dark while talking of good company and to mistake starvation (fasting) for good conduct.
The following has been said in praise of the Jain religion:-29. The true meaning of Mercy and compassion.
"O man! Even if thou canst not perform austerities, reform thy conduct, read the aphorisms, meditate upon the teachings of the Prakaran Ratnakar and other scriptures and bestow charity upon the deserving, do thou believe that the arhat (the Jain saint) alone is the God to whom and to other true preceptors, worship is due from thee and the Jain religion is the best. This is a beautiful belief that will be the cause of your regeneration." Prakaran Ratnakar, Part2, Sutra 2
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A. ~Although mercy and forgiveness are good qualities, yet if they are prompted by unreasoning prejudice, mercy becomes equivalent to cruelty and forgiveness becomes as bad as revenge. What we mean to say is that it is not possible to enforce the principle of not causing pain to any living creature on all occasions. Punishing the wicked is, in fact, an act of mercy. If a wicked person is exempted from punishment thousands will suffer at his hands.
This act of (misplaced) mercy will be as much fruitful of mischief as cruelty, and this act of forgiveness will prove as bad as revenge. It is quite true that mercy consists of endeavoring to promote the happiness of all sentient beings and to wean them from sorrow. It does not consist of merely drinking water filtered by means of a piece of cloth or in saving the lives of tiny creatures. This species of mercy is only theoretically believed in by the Jainees; they do not show it in their practical conduct. It is not
an act of true mercy to feed the needy without distinction of creed and to reverence and serve the learned men professing a religion other than one's own. If (the teachers of the Jain religion) had the right conception of mercy, they would not have preached as follows:-
"The Jains are strictly prohibited to
- praise a person belonging to another religion or to talk of his good qualities.
- T salute him.
- To talk much to him.
- To talk to him frequently.
- To bestow upon his food and clothes.
- To supply odoriferous substances and flower to enable him to worship his idol." Vivekasar page 121.
Let the wise consider with what feelings of hatred, malice, and hostility the Jainees are actuated in their relations with those who profess a religion different from theirs. Those who show so little consideration for people who do not belong to their religion surely deserve to be called merciless. It is not an act of very great piety to serve the members of one's own family. The Jains may be called members of one great household (fraternity). A person, therefore, who has absolutely no regard for others will not be called merciful by the wise.
In the Vivekasar (page 108) it is written that the Jainees murdered Namuchi, the Prime Minister, of the then king of Mathura, because they thought him their enemy and the murderers were purified by the performance of penance. Was not this an act calculated to destroy all feelings of mercy and forgiveness?
People whose malice against those who differ from them in religion is so great that they do not scruple to murder them should rather be termed actively hostile than merciful. The definition of good company, etc., are given in Parmagamansar which is a synopsis of the teachings of the Jain saints.
Right faith, good company, knowledge, and good conduct - these four - lead to salvation. Yogdeva has given an exposition of these duties.
Possession of a firm and perfectly sincere faith in what the Jain scriptures teach about the soul and other entities and a love for the Jain religion constitute true faith and good company.
"One must believe in those entities in which Jin believed and no others."
The wise call a full or a superficial knowledge of the entities believe in by Jain - knowledge of them as they really exist - "correct knowledge".
Good conduct is the renouncing of all connections with other religions - which deserve to be denounced. 30. Five obligatory duties of the Jains.
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Again there are five Bratas (obligatory duties):-
Most of these injunctions are sound, such as those relating to abstention from killing and to the he giving up of theft and other evil practices but the behests enjoining hatred and denunciation of other religions are likely to mar the wholesome effect of these sound teachings also.
- Ahinsa - abstention from killing any sentient creature.
- Sunrita - sweet speech.
- Asteya - abstention from encroaching upon the rights of others.
- Brahmacharya - thorough control of the sexual impulses.
- Aparigraha - renunciation.
In the very first aphorism quoted above it is laid down that the religions expounded by Hari Har, etc., cannot help forward the regeneration of the world. The denunciation of religion, the study of which makes one learned in all sciences and virtuous, is surely a malicious act.
People who extol to the heavens their Tirthankars (saints) who teach doctrines which are absolutely opposed to the laws of nature cannot be prompted by wrong-headedness and unreasoning prejudice.
How absurd that a Jainee should be regarded a good man merely because he declares that the Jain religion is a true religion, even though he be not possessed of good conduct, of knowledge, and of habits of benevolence, while philanthropic and virtuous people who are non-Jains should be regarded bad men, merely because they do not profess a belief in the Jain religion.
We wonder what to say about such people, except that they are possessed of a defective and childish understanding. The only conclusion that can be drawn from all this is that their teachers were not deeply learned men. They were, on the contrary, selfish. If they had not denounced all religions, nobody would have been seduced from the right path and led to believe their false teachings and they would surely have been baffled in their object. Mark! It can be proved that the Jain faith is calculated to ruin people (morally and spiritually) and the Vedic Religion tends to the redemption of this world and that Hari Har. Etc., were the true devas, while Rishabhdeva, etc., were
the false devas. How would the Jainees like being told this by other people? 31. Further errors of the Jain faith.
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We should now expose further the errors of the Jain teachers.
"Whoever disobeys the behests of the Jain saints by deviating from the path carved out by them and thus falls into moral turpitude commits a sin and is involved in misery. It is very difficult to follow duties like - laid down by the Lord of Jain (Tirthankaras) therefore, it is best to always act in such a way that his behests may not be violated." Prakaran Ratnakar, Part 2:6-11.
It is foolish to indulge in self-praise, to extol one's own religion and to denounce other religions. That alone is worthy of praise which is praised by learned men belonging to another faith. Even thieves praise themselves. Does this prove that thievishness is worthy of praise?
Again, the Jain teachers teach:-
"Jus as a ruby, which is embedded in the head of a venomous snake, should not be sought after, even so, it behooves the Jainees to shun the company of a non-Jain, no matter how virtuous and learned he is." Prakaran Pratnakar, Part 2:18.
How erroneous is this teaching! If the Jain teachers and their disciples had been learned men, the would have (tried to inculcate) a love for the learned. When even their Tirthankaras were ignorant, how could they be expected to reverence the learned? Who would not like to take hold of gold even if it is lying in filth or dust? It is clear, therefore, that no sectarians are so much biased, perverse, wrong-headed and ignorant as the Jainees are.
Again, the Jain scripture says:-
"Let not the Jainees even look at those that are opposed to the Jain religion." Prakaran Ratnakar, Part 2:29
How stupid this injunction is, the wise can find out for themselves. There is no doubt about it that he who preaches the true religion stands in no dread of anybody. The Jain teachers know very well that their teachings were absurd and could not stand the test of discussion and, therefore, thought it best to denounce all thus to ensnare fools in their net.
Again, it is taught in the Jain books:-
"All religions that are opposed to the Jain faith lead mankind to sin. It is, therefore, best to shun all other faiths and believe in the Jain religion only." Prakaran Ratnakar, Part 2:6, 27.
This shows that the Jain religion teaches its followers to hate, denounce and regard with malice all that does not belong to it. It thus makes people wicked. No sectarians are so unreasonable and violent in their hatred of others as are the Jainees. It is the wicked only who denounce all indiscriminately and praise themselves in hyperbolic terms. Discerning men - no matter to what religion they belong - praise the good points in a religion and express disapproval of the weak points therein.
Here is another specimen of Jain teachings:-
"The other faiths and their teachers dwindle into insignificance, when compared with the Jain faith, the teachings of the Omniscient Jins and the teachers of the Jainees. It means that the Jain teachers are the true devas and the Jain religion is the true religion; while the teachers of other religions are the false devas and their teachings are false." Prakaran Ratnakar, Part 2: 35.
It seems that the Jainees are like the market -women that sell plums - who always trumpet forth that their plums are sweet, even though they are sour, and invariably run down the plums sold by others. The Jain religion teaches that it is a sin for the Jainees to serve people professing other creeds.
We have already stated that, according to the Jains, it is best to shun even the good and virtuous among the Non-Jainees even as it is advisable not to seek the ruby embedded in the head of a snake.
But Jains have gone a step further in their denunciation of other religions. Say they:-
All except the Jain teachers are false teachers and are worse than snakes. It is, therefore, not right to see them, to serve or to associate with them, because snakebite kills a man once only but by association with false teachers belonging to non-Jain religion, one becomes subject to a concatenation of births and deaths. O, good man! Do thou never stand by the side of a non-Jain teacher because thou wilt court misery if thou served him even a little." Prakaran Tranaakar2:37
Who can possibly be hard-hearted, mistaken, hostile to a greater degree than are the Jainees. Perhaps, the Jain teachers think that if they will not denounce others and praise themselves, nobody will serve and respect them. But in reality they are very unfortunate, for so long as they will not associate with, and serve, good and learned men, they will never obtain true knowledge and attain to a right conception of duty. It, therefore, behooves the Jainees to give up their false beliefs and to accept the truths taught by the Veda. In this, consists of their real well-being.
Again, the Jain saints teach:-
"One must always shun the company of him who is past all reform, refractory, and skillful in doing evil deeds. Such a person is sure to compass the ruin of his benefactor. The man who seeks to do good to a false teacher (belonging to another religion) seeks his own ruin even as a person who, prompted by compassion, undertakes to
remove the bandage from the eyes of a blindfolded lion is eaten up by the animal. It is, therefore, safest to keep away from a false teacher." Prakaran Ratnakar, Part 2:40.
If the Jainees were regarded by others with the same amount of hostility with which the (are taught to) regard all non-Jains, their lot would become intolerable. If nobody were to do them a good turn, they would grovel in misery and much of their work would remain undone. Why do not the Jainees do unto others as they would be done by.
Again, the Jain books teach:-
"What a wonder that the more people respect and reverence preachers whose very sight is abhorrent, who are so wicked that they can be purified only by penance, who are deserving of punishment and vicious, who keep with them (with a view to dupe others) three staves which are the symbols of the fourth, Order, who are Sanyasis or Brahmans, the more the true knowledge, possessed by the Jain saints (that are possessed of discernment) is manifested."Prakaran Ratnakar Part 2: 42
Mark! How can it be possible for anybody to be possessed by vindictiveness, hostility and unreasoning prejudices against others in a greater degree than are the Jainees? Other sectarians have also these weaknesses but not the extent to which the Jains have them. Vindictiveness is at the root of all sins. What wonder, then, if some Jainees are wicked!
Again, the Jain teachers say:-
"People belonging to non-Jain sects which are composed of thieves do not shun (moral) deterioration even as ignorant people who mix with thieves shake off all fear of their noses being lopped* off (by way of punishment)." Prakaran Ratnakar, Part 2f: 75.
A man's own inner-self is often reflected in his judgment about others. Can it ever be true that the Jain sect alone consists of
* This was the punishment usually awarded to thieves in ancient times.-Tr.
honest men, while other sects are composed of thieves? It is only ignorant persons and those whose intellect has bee perverted on account of association with the wicked that are hostile and vindictive in their treatment of others. There is no religion which enjoins so much hostility towards people belonging to other faiths as does the Jain faith.
Again, the Jain books inculcate:-
"In a former aphorism it has been stated that all to belonging to the Jain religion are preachers of falsehood and the Jainees alone are possessed of true knowledge. Whoever, then, helps forward the cause of religion started by a preacher of falsehood is a sinner." Prakaran Ratnakar, Part 2: 76.
If the naumi fast observed in the honor of Chamunda, Kalka and Jawala is a sinful act, why are not the Jain fasts like 'Pajusan' sinful acts. Their fasts involve much pain. The Jains are right in denouncing the hopus copus of Vama Margis but there seems to be no reason why they should not denounce the worship of their own goddesses like Shasan and Marut.
It cannot be said in reply that these goddesses do not favor cruelty, for it is recorded about the goddess Shasan that she had taken out the eye of one man and of one goat. Why should not that she-fiend be regarded as the real sister of Durga or Kalka. It is the height of foolishness on the art of the Jainees to call their fasts Pachchakkhana virtuous acts and to denounce fast like Naumi. True Vratas (fasts) observed by Jainees and others are not good.
Again, their book say:-
"Those who admire prostitutes, mimics and bards, and Brahmans, are in favor of Yajnas and worship false gods and goddesses like Ganesha who should never even be looked at, are themselves sunk in ignorance and mislead others, because they expect those goddesses to gratify all their desires and, therefore, keep away from Jain ascetics." Prakaran Ratnakar, Part 2:82
It is sheer prejudice on the part of Jains to call the gods of others false and their own gods true. They denounce the goddess of the Vama Margis but it is strange that they do not call their goddess Shasan cruel. It is recorded about her in the Shardhadin Kritya (page 46) that she aimed a blow at a man and took out one of his eyes because he had taken supper on a night (on which he ought to have fasted). Then she took out the eye of a goat and put it in the empty socket of the man. Just see what is written in the Ratan Sagar (Part 2, page 67). The goddess Marut transformed herself into a stone idol to help the wayfarers.
Again, the Jain teachers say:-
It would have been very much better if the non-Jains - the preachers of falsehood - had not been born at all or had not attained growth, even if born." Prakaran Ratnakar, Part 2: 81
Just mark! The Jain religion which has been enjoined by saints and it professed to be based upon mercy enjoins that the death of non-Jains should be desired. The truth is that the Jainees only talk about mercy (i.e., they do not practice this virtue) and if they do show mercy, it is too tiny creatures and beasts, not to non-Jain human beings.
Again, it is written in Jain scriptures:-
"It is no wonder if a man born in a Jain family attains salvation, but is it surprising if one born in a non-salvation, but is it surprising of one born in a non-Jain family and belonging to a false religion attains final beatitude." Prakaran Ratnakar, Part 2: 83.
The upshot of this is that only Jainees attain salvation. All who do not accept that religion got to hell. Is there no wicked man among the Jainees or none that deserves to be sent to hell? Do all of them attain salvation? It is sheer madness to assert that. Who but a simpleton can believe in such absurdities.
"It is a good thing to worship Jain idols but worshipping idols of non-Jain is no good. Whoever obeys the commandments of the Jain religion is a philosopher, whoever does is not so." Prakaran Ratnakar, Part 2: 90
How funny! Are not Jain idols like the idols of the Vaishnavites inert and lifeless? Idol-worship is bad - no matter whether that form of worship is Jain, etc., or Vaishnavite. The Jainees call themselves philosophers and do not consider others so. This shows they know nothing of philosophy.
Again, the Jain religion teaches:-
"Virtues like mercy and forgiveness taught by God Jin constitute Dharma (the true ideal of conduct). The commandments of all other teachers lead to sin." Prakaran Ratnakar, Part 2: 92.
How unjust is it to assert that none among the non-Jains is truthful and virtuous? Should not one respect a non-Jain, even if he possesses a righteous character? This (i.e., the monopoly of religious conduct) could have been claimed for the Jainees if their bodily make had been different from that of others. The Jains, in lavishing and unbecoming excessive praise upon their books, their saints and their sayings, excel even hired bards.
Here is another quotation from the same book:-
The increase in the influence and power of gods (i.e., teachers) like Harihar will lead people to hell, the Jainees cannot view this without feelings of horror. When a violation of orders promulgated by an earthly sovereign entails upon the offender penalty of death, why will not one who goes against the behests of the Jain God (great teacher) become subject to metempsychosis." Prakaran Ratnakar, Part 2: 95
Look at Jain's teacher! Now, their real inner motives have been disclosed - not to speak of the trickery and deceptive practices. They cannot hear the enhancement of the temporal influence of Harihar and his followers. If people belonging to other sects accumulate riches, they are consumed with jealousy. Perhaps, they desire that all the worldly belongings of non-Jains may be transferred to them and that (their adversaries) may be reduced to poverty.
They have compared the commands of their teachers to those promulgated by a king because these people are liars and cowards. Ti is absolutely necessary to obey all the commands of a king - even those that conflict with the ideals of truthful conduct. We do not think that there are many people more vindictive and malevolent than the Jainees.
Here is another citation from the same work:-
"Only fools are opposed to the Jain religion. Religious preachers, recluses, householders, and authors described by the great Jain teacher (Jin) are equal in position to the Tirthankaras, none can equal them." Prakaran Ratnakar, Part 2: 1.
How funny! If the Jainees had not been possessed of childlike intellects they would not have pinned their faith to such absurd sayings. These teachers are like the devi monde who take delight in dwelling on their personal charms.
Here is another verse from the same book:-
"It does not behoove the Jains to ease paying homage to the great god (Jin), the Jain preacher, and to give up their faith in the doctrines propounded by the former." Prakaran Ratnakar.
It appears that the Jainees are perverse, ignorant and biased otherwise they would never have said so. The truth is that almost all the teachings of the Jain religion are unacceptable. If even a man possessed of a limited understanding has an occasion to learn something about Jain gods, their books and their preachers, he is sure to make up his mind to have nothing to do with them.
Only those that act in accordance with the teachings of Jin deserve to be adored - not those that contravene those teachings. One must follow the Jain preceptors and none others." Prakaran Ratnakar, Part 2: 108
If the Jain teachers had not ensnared ignorant people and driven them before them like dumb cattle, the latter would have been enabled to avail themselves fully of the advantages of life and thus to fit themselves for the attainment of salvation. Would not the Jainees feel aggrieved, if they were addressed as misguided people, liars, and preachers of falsehoods? By addressing others in these terms they surely cause them pain. These religious teachers teach many more foolish things like this.
Here is another verse from the Jain literature:-
"Let the Jainees never engage in trade and agriculture, even though they risked their lives by obeying this injunction. These occupations lead one to hell." Prakaran Ratnakar, Part 2: 109
It is, indeed strange that the Jainees take to these occupations (in defiance of the behests of their religion) and do not give them up. If they gave them up, they could not support themselves. If all people followed this Jain commandment, the Jainees would get nothing to eat and could not live. It is foolish to preach such absurdities. But the Jain teachers are not much to blame. They
were devoid of learning and had never associated with the learned and, therefore, thoughtlessly wrote down such things.
Here is another verse from the same book:
"People that believe scriptures whose teachings are opposed to those of Jain scriptures are extremely wicked. Let no one believe or speak anything against the Jain religion even if by doing that he can gain his end. Let no other religion be accepted even if by so doing some be gained." Prakaran Ratnakar, Part 2:121
All the Jain teachers, not excepting founder of the religion, have done nothing but indulged in the vilification of other religions. Nor is it expected that future Jain teachers will depart from this course. When a selfish object is to be gained, the Jainees are found willing to enlist as disciples of those who themselves are disciples of others. What then, is the use of indulging in boggodocia like the above. It is a pity that they feel no shame in doing this.
We quote another verse from the same book:
"If a man were to say that the Jain ascetics are virtuous and so are others, he would be doomed to pass billions of years in hell and thereafter will be re-born as a despised creature." Prakaran Ratnakar
How stupid! These enemies of enlightenment have laid down this damning injunction, so that none may dare contradict their teachings. But this is impossible. How can one go on arguing with these people? They think it a pleasing occupation to indulge in misrepresentation and to gain their (selfish) object by denouncing and crying down other religions.
Here is another specimen of their teachings:
"Even if a man cannot act up to the precepts of the Jain religion, he crosses the sea of pain and misery if he only believes this to be the only true religion in the world." Prakaran Ratnakar, Part 2:127
What a nice trap have the Jainees set to attract fools who would like nothing better than to be placed in the way of attaining salvation without having to do (righteous) deeds. We do not think that there exists a religion more idiotic than this.
Mark! What the scriptures of this religion teach:
"If a man has only a desire to believe in Jain scriptures and never to pin his faith to non-Jain books he can cross the sea of misery." Prakaran Ratnakar, Part 2:128.
These verses have been composed solely with a view to entrapping simpletons, for no one can cross the sea of misery in this world, simply by entertaining this desire and escape suffering the pain of evil deeds done in the past birth. If the Jain teachers had not preached such false and foolish notions - notions oppose to the dictates of knowledge -, their followers would have taken to the study of the Vedas and other true Shastras, found out the truth and renounced all belief in the teachings of their foolish books.
Ignorantly fools have, however, been completely entrapped. It is possible that some wise, man, who associates with learned men, may snap asunder these chains but a fool can never do that.
Here is another Jain teaching:
"Only those people attain happiness and become virtuous that study books on Grammar, Annotations Books containing authoritative expositions and codes of Law written by the Jain teachers - not those who study books written by others." Prakaran Ratnakar, Part 2:138
Is it righteous conduct to suffer the pangs of (self-imposed) starvation (fasting)? If going without food and drink constitutes righteous conduct there is no reason why people that starve when famine decimates a country or those that starve because they have no means of subsistence should not become sanctified and thus attain righteous ends.
In point of fact neither such people are purified in this way nor are the Jainees. Such people, instead of attaining happiness, suffer pain, for they are consumed by internal heat (which gets no fuel). In reality,
continence, equity, and truthfulness in speech constitute various conduct and mendacity and inequity constitute vicious conduct. "Desirable conduct" may be defined as the establishment of living and benevolent relations with all. Going without food and drink - as the Jainees do - has nothing to do with virtue. Whoever accepts the guidance of the Jain aphorisms jumps into a sea of misery, for much of what they teach is false. Only very little of it is based upon truth.
Here is another Jain aphorism:
"The Jaine religion is accepted only by those that are possessed of good fortune; in other words, all non-Jains are ill-starred wretches." Prakaran Ratnakar, Part 2:148
Is not this statement erroneous and false. Does fortune never smile on non-Jains and does fate never frown upon Jainees? The Jain teachers say that the Jainees should not quarrel among themselves, but, should love one another. This shows that no harm will accrue if they will quarrel with the followers of other religions. This is also foolish, for good men always make it a point to love good men and to reform bad men.
Again, the Jain teachers hold that Brahmans, ascetics, sanyasis, and recluses are enemies of the Jain religion. How can the Jainees be said to cultivate the virtues of mercy and forgiveness when they regard all people with feelings of hostility and denounce them. Hostility towards others is inconsistent with forgiveness and mercy. Nothing is calculated to do greater injury to others than this attitude.
The a Jainees are the embodiments of hostility towards others - no other people approach them in this matter,. How would the Jainees take it, if all the 24 Tirthankaras from Rishabhdeva to Mahavir were called jealous, vindictive and mendacious, and the Jains are denounced as people suffering from insanity and their religion was regarded as a hellish faith inculcating venomous doctrines? The reason why the Jainees are suffering from incalculable pain is that they are given to an unreasonable denunciation of other faiths. It would be very much better if they gave up this habit.
Now we quote another aphorism:-
"All true disciples (Jainees) have one God, one teacher, one religion. It is the highest virtue to protect the Jain idols, Jain temples and the property attached thereto and to worship Jain idols." Prakaran Ratnakar, Part 2:160.
The fact is that idol-worship with all its attendant evils originated with the Jainees and, therefore, the Jain religion is at the root of all fraud.
"All Shravaks (Jain disciples) should first prostrate themselves at the gate of a temple. When he has prostrated himself at the second gate he should say, 'i am a true disciple'. After prostrating himself at the third gate, he should say to himself, 'How many have we' saints.. after prostrating himself at the fourth gate, he should mutter to himself. 'Of the four principal aims of life salvation takes the foremost rank.
True knowledge is the means of attaining it and is, therefore, called yoga.' These are the six ways in which a man can be purified of all his sins. They also are said to constitute yoga. 'We shall realize them.' At the fifth gate, let him think of prostrating himself before the idol, of presenting offerings to it and of worshipping it in the mind. At the sixth gate, he must think of the duty of repeating legends - the nine authoritative legends."
Further on, in the same book, it is written that at the time of supper the idols of Tirthankaras should be worshipped and the temple-door should be worshipped. The ceremony connected with door-worship is very tedious. As regards temple-building, it is written that a man will attain salvation if he gets old temples rebuilt and renovated.
The worshipper is enjoined to sit in the temple in the prescribed manner, to offer his worship with great reverence, to mutter texts like "Salutation to the great God Jin" at the time of bathing the idol and to mutter texts like "offer water, sandal, flowers, incense and lamps" at the time of offering fragrant substances. It is written on page 12 of Ratnasar
Bhaga that the Jain priest is not even subject to the authority of a king. On page 3 of Ratnasar Bhaga it is written that, by worshipping idols, one becomes immune from sickness and is freed from the principal vices. A man once offered to an idol a flower worth five shells and got in exchange sovereignty of 18 kingdoms. His name was Kumarpal, all these statements are mendacious and are meant only to ensnare fools.
There are many Jainees who worship idols and yet fall ill and by worshipping idols do not obtain the sovereignty of even one acre of land. If the offering of a flower worth 5 shells can secure sovereignty, why do not the Jainees become master of the entire world by offering to their idols many flowers worth 5 shells each. Why do they submit to the punishment inflicted by the government of their country.
If idol worship enables one to cross the ocean of misery, what need is there, then, for acquiring true knowledge, good company, and practicing virtue.
On page 14 of the Ratnasar it is written that the water of immortality is to be found in the thumb of Gautam and that, by meditating on him one gains the desired end. If it is really so, all the Jainees would become immortal, but, as a matter of fact - they are subject to death. This shows that this story is simply meant to lead fools astray. There is o truth in it.
The verse which they chant at the time of offering worship is written on page 92 of the Ratnasar Bhaga. Ti means, "May we worship the (idols of) the Tirthankars - who had completely mastered their passions and offer to them water, sandal, rice, flowers, incense." This is the reason why we say that idol-worship is originated with the Jainees.
"In a Jain temple, one is not dominated by inordinate affection. It enables one to cross the ocean of worldliness." (vide Vivekdar, page 21)
"Idol worship leads to salvation and by visiting a Jain temple one becomes possessed of admirable qualities. Whoever worships the idols of the Tirthankaras by offering them water and sandal is released from hell and goes to heaven." (vide Viveksar, pages 51 and 52.
"By worshipping the idol of Rishabhdeva, placed in a Jain temple, one attains righteous ends, wealth, the fulfillment of desires and salvation." (vide Viveksar, page 55).
"One who worships Jain idols is freed from all worldly sorrow," (vide Viveksar, page 61).
Now, mark! How stupid and foolish are these statements! If it was true that in this way, i.e. (by worshipping idols) one is weaned from sin, ceases to be dominated by inordinate affection, crosses the sea of worldliness, becomes possessed of good qualities is released from hell and goes to heaven, attains righteous ends, wealth, fulfilment of desires, and salvation, and is freed from sorrow, how is it that all the Jainees are not happy and do not become possessed of all the good things of the earth.
On page 3 of the same book, it is written that those that have installed Jain idols solve the problem of bread from themselves and their ancestors. On page 225 of the same book, it is written that it is a very bad act to worship the idols of Shiva, Vishnu, etc. Their worship leads to hell. Now, it may be asked as to why Jain idols will not lead one to hell if those of Shiva and Vishnu do so. If it be said in reply that the Jain idols are symbolic of renunciation, placidity and are such as confer blessings, the questions arises as to why Jain idols, which are installed in temples costing thousands of pounds, and to which sandal and saffron are offered, should be regarded as symbolic of renunciation, if the idols of Shiva, etc., which are sometimes under the canopy of the heaven cannot be so regarded. If you speak of placidity, all inanimate substances look placid because they cannot move.
Q. - Our idols are good because they are not adorned with clothes ornaments, etc.
A. ~ It is a beastly act to keep idols representing human beings in a state of primitive nudity exposed to the public view.
Q. - Just as one's passions are excited if he looks at the idol of a female, so good qualities will be cultivated if one looks at the idol of saints, Yogis and sadhus.
A. ~ If you believe that, by looking at a stone idol, you become possessed of good qualities, why do you not also believe that
attributes like inertness belonging to the idol are transferred to you? If you become devoid of intelligence, you will be utterly useless. Again, if you take to idol-worship, instead of keeping company with learned men, you will become greater dunces than you were before. An idol-worshipper falls prey to all the vices which have been enumerated in the 11th Chapter of this book. Just as the Jainees talk much nonsense about idol-worship, so their maniras also teach many absurdities.
Here is one of them:-
"Salutations unto Arthant, salutations unto Sidhas (perfect beings) etc."
This mantra is said to be holy. It is a mantra which is recited at the time of the initiation of a disciple into the Jain religion and it is said that the chanting of it confers incalculable benefits. In the matter of hyperbolic praise (bestowed) on this mantra), the Jainees have outstripped even the authors of the Puranas and the Tantras and the bards.
In the Shradhadinkritya is written that this mantra is holy and exalted. Among the mantras worthy of meditation of mediation it holds the foremost position. It is the most real of all realities. The Navakar mantra is as helpful for the worldly as a ship is for those that desire to cross the sea. This Navakar is like a ship; Those that do not seek its aid are drowned in the sea of worldliness and those that do are weaned from misery. The mantra alone keeps the soul from suffering pain, weans it from sin and enables it to attain salvation.
It is this which enables one to cross the sea of worldliness, i.e., releases one from pain consequent upon deeds done in many incarnations. At the time of the infliction of eight kinds of tortures like fire, nothing is helpful except this mantra. The preceptor who is competent to teach this mantra is as much to be congratulated as the possessor of Vaidura (the prince of rubies), or an unerring weapon of warfare when one is in dread of his enemy. Of the
twelve sacred mantras this Navakar mantra is the most secret. It means:-
The world Jain does not occur in the text, but we have added it in the translation, because in most Jaine books it is recorded that no non-Jain is worthy of being saluted.
- Salutations to all the Tirthankaras.
- Salutations to all the Jain saints.
- Salutations to all the Jain teachers.
- Salutations to all professors of Jain theology.
- Salutations to all Jain Sadhus that are in this world.
On page 169 of the Tatvaviveh is written that whoever worships stones and wood, thinking them to be God is rewarded well for his pains. Now, if it is really so why do not all the Jainees gain happiness, even though they worship idols? On page 10 of the Ratansar Bhaga, it is written that by offering worship to the idol of Parasnath one is absolved from sins. On page 51 of the Kalp Bhag it is written that 1 lac and 25 thousand temples were repaired. There are many other statements like those which go to prove that idol-worship was originated with the Jainees.32. The evil practices of the Jain Sadhus.
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NOW WE SHALL TREAT OF THE EVIL PRACTICES OF JAIN SADHUS
On page 228 of the Viveksar, it is written that a Jaine sadhu, who was the paramour of a prostitute named Kosha, renounced the world and went to heaven. On page 10 of the same book it is recorded that Arnak Muni (ascetic) departed from the course of righteousness, misconducted himself for years together in the family of Dutta, the banker, and then went to heaven.
Shalia spirited away Dhandhan Muni, the son of Shri Krishna, and afterwards became a god. On page 193 of the same book, it is written that the shravaks (the pain laity) should revere Jain sadhu, even if he only bears the symbols of the Order. These sadhus are worthy of reverence, no matter whether they bear a good character or a bad one. On page 168 it is said that that a characterless Jain sadhu is to be much more respected than a sadhu of good character belonging to another persuasion. On page 71 it has been said that the Jain laity should serve the Jain Sadhus even if they are characterless,
Reprobates. On page 276 it is related that a thief tore his hair, followed the rules of good conduct, adopted a penitent attitude and, in the sixth month after this, he became a perfect man on account of his having attained true knowledge. Now mark! Of what stuff the Jain sadhus and householders are made!
According to their religious beliefs, even a rakish sadhu attained to a state of blessedness, while Shri Krishna is believed to have gone to the third hell (vide page 106). On page 145 it is written that Dhanwantri* went to hell. On page 48 it is written that eh yogis and other Pauranic sadhus, Wazis (Mohammedan priests), and Mullahs (Muslim holy-men) attain to a lower state on account of their ignorance, even though they practice austerities and consequently submit to much suffering.
On page 171 it is written that of the 9 Vasudevais, viz., Tripriashtha Vasudeva, Daviprishtha Vasudeva, Swayambhudeva Vasudeva, Parushotam Vasudeva, Sinha Purasha Vasudeva, Purushpundrik Vasudeva, Datta Vasudeva, Lakshman Vasudeva, and Shri Krishna Vasudeva went to hell in the time of the 11th, the 12th, the 14th, the 15th, 18th, the 20th, and the 22nd Tirthankaras and the 9 Prati Vasudevas viz., Ashvagrivaprati Vasudeva, Tarakaparti Vasudeva, Modakaprati Vasudeva, Madhuprati Vasudeva, Nishambhprati Vasudeva, Baliprati Vasudeva, Prahladprani Vasudeva, Ravanprati Vasudeva, and Jarasindhaprati Vasudeva all went to hell.
In the Kalpa Bhashya it is written that the 24 Tirthankaras of whom the first was Rishabhdeva and the last Mahavir all attained salvation.
Let the wise consider how wrong it is to say that the Jain sadhus, house-holders, and Tirthankaras, many of whom were adulterers, paramours of prostitutes, all went to heaven and attained salvation, while might souls like Shri Krishna all went to hell. To tell the truth, a good man ought not to keep company with the Jainees or even look at them, for, if he does keep their company, he will also begin to believe in absurdities.
The company of such bigoted and biased men leads to evil results. There is, of course, no harm in associating with good people among the Jainees. On page 55 of the Viveksar, it is written that not righteous ends can be gained by visiting places of pilgrimage like Hardwar and Kashi (Benares), while the Jain places of pilgrimage like Grinar Palitana and Abu are such that by visiting them we can attain even salvation. The point to be carefully noted is that Jain places of pilgrimage are on land and water just like those of the Shivites, Vasihnavites,
* He was a great sage who is an authority on Medicine and Surgery. He is the Indian Galen. Tr.
etc. It is foolish act to denounce the latter and to hold up the former to admiration.33. The Jain concept of Salvation.
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NOW WE HALL DISCUSS THE JAIN (CONCEPTION OF) SALVATION.
On page 23 of the Ratsar it is written, that Mahadeva Trithankar, addressing Gautam said: "There is a place in the higher region called Sidhshilla. It is higher up than heaven and 4 and half millions of leagues long and as many leagues broad. It is 8 leagues in thickness. It is whiter than a necklace of white pearls and cow-milk.
It is situated at the top of the 18th region. It is more resplendent than gold and clearer than crystal. Higher up is Shivpura where also emancipated souls dwell. There they are not subject to birth and death and enjoy bliss. They do not return to this world and are not required to do deeds."
This is the Jain conception of salvation. On deep reflection, it appears that the Jainees have fixed upon Sidhshila and Shivpur the abode of perpetual bliss, even as the Pauraniks have fixed upon Vaikunth, Kailash, Golok, Shivpur, etc., the Christians, the fourth sky and the Mohammedans the seventh sky. Whatever is thought to be higher up by the Jainees will be thought to be lower down by people inhabiting certain portions of the globe.
Up and down are not absolute terms. Whatever is higher up for Jainees residing in India is lower down for the Americans and vice versa. Even if Sidhashila is supposed 9 millions of leagues long, the so-called emancipated souls will remain in a state of imprisonment, for the moment they leave the place, they will cease to be in the state of salvation.
It is also natural for the emancipated souls to feel an attachment for the place and a disinclination to go outside it. How can that state be called a state of salvation which involves special attachments, inclinations, and dis-inclinations? The true state of salvation has been described by us in the 9th chapter. Salvation believed in by the Jains is like unto a state of imprisonment. In the matter of the true conception of salvation, the Jainees have fallen into an error.
The truth is that the right conception of the state of blessedness cannot be attained without a right understanding of the Veda. Now, we hall relate a few more cock-and-bull stories believe in by the Jains. The following is taken from the Viveksar:-
"When Mahavir was born, he bathed with water contained in 16 millions of buckets (page 78). King Darsharam went to
Mahavir to pay his respects and displayed some hauteur. To wean him from this, 16,777,216,000 men of the shape of Indra and 13,370,572,800,000,000 Indranis (female figures of the shape of the wife of Indra) appeared on the scene. The sight struck the king dumb with astonishment."
How many worlds (of the dimensions of our earth) were required to enable the Indras and the Indranis to find a standing place. On page 13 of this Shradhadinkritya (Atmaninda Bhawana) the injunction is laid down that wells should not be sunk, nor should tanks be dug out.
Now, if this injunction is followed, it does not appear how people will obtain their water-supply.
Q. - The Jainees do not do this, because they think that if tanks are dug out, any sentient creatures die and the person at whose expense they are dug out commits sin.
A. ~ What an idiot you are! If you think of the sin involved in the destruction of tiny creatures, why do you not, likewise, think of the merit to be won by making arrangements for the supply of drinking water to higher animals like men and cows.
On page 196 of the Tatwaviveka it is written that a banker names Nandmanikar had a bauli ( a kind of well) sunk in his town. He departed from the right course and was, therefore, afflicted with 16 terrible diseases. After he died, he was reborn as a frog doomed to pass his days in that self-same well.
When he (the frog) saw Mahavir he became conscious of his own self. Mahavir says that he recognized him as his Lord in the previous birth and ran to prostrate himself before him. He was crushed to death by the horse of a shrenik and, on account of this good thought, he became a great God named Dardurank.
On account of his limited knowledge, he thought that Mahavir was there prostrated himself and went back, after displaying his good fortune.
It is an act of folly to regard as very exalted Mahavir who could talk of such absurd things, which are opposed to the dictates of knowledge.
On page 36 of Sharadhdinkritya it is written that a Sadhu may possess himself of the clothes on the body of a dead man.
Are not these Sadhus like the Mahabrahmans? Who is to take the ornaments? Perhaps, the survivors keep them with them-
selves on account of their value. Now, what is one to think of such people?
On page 105 of the Ratnasar it is written that it is a sin to roast, to use pestle and mortar, to grind and to cook.
Now, is not this an extremely foolish injunction? How can people live if these things were not done? Even the Jains would, in that case, die of suffering.
On page 104 of the Ratnasar it is written that the gardener who plants a garden is a hundred thousand times a sinner.
How foolish of the composer of this verse not to think that if the gardener was 100,000 times a sinner, he was also millions of times a doer of meritorious act because the leaves, fruits, flowers and the shade of trees afforded relief to a countless number of sentient creatures.
On page L.202 of the Tatwaviveka it is written that a Sadhu named Labdhi once entered the house of a prostitute by a mistake and begged for alms in the name of righteousness. The prostitute replied that righteousness had no place in her scheme of life and that she thought only of wealth. On this, he scattered 12 and a half lacs of mohars in her house.
Now, who would believe in such nonsense except a dunce?
On page 67 of the Ratnasar Bhaga it is written that a stone-idol rides a horse and comes to the rescue, whenever and wherever its aid is invoked.
Now why are not the Jainees defended by that idol when they are attacked by thieves or robbers or are in dread of the enemy? Why do they look for redress at the police station.
The following verses have been composed by Jinadattasuri with a view to bringing into prominence the good qualities of the Jain:-
- A yati is one who has conquered his lower self who keeps a Chowri,* begs his bread, keeps his head shaved, wears white
* A kind of brush carried by every Jain Sadhu for sweeping the place he sits on.-Tr.
garments are given to forgiveness and keep away from the company of other men.
- "The Digambar Sadhus are those that do not put on any clothes, pull out their hair, and keep with them a woolen brush for sweeping the floor and eat what they get by way of alms. "Jinarshi Sadhus are those that take their food after the house-holders have partaken of it."
- The only difference between the Digambars and Shwetmbars (or Yatisa) is that, according to the latter, women can attain salvation, while, according to the former, they never can."
Such are the means of salvation believe in by the Jainees. It is generally known that the Jainees pull out their hair. It is also written in their books that five handfuls of hair should be pulled out.
On page 216 of the Viveksar Bhag it is written that a person was admitted into the Order of sadhus when he had pulled out five handfuls of his hair; on page 108 of the Kalpsutra Bhashya it is written that let the hair of a sadhu be pulled till only as much remains as covers the body of a cow.
In the face of this, how can the Jainees claim that they are merciful. The pulling out of the hair causes great pain, no matter whether the act is done by the candidate himself or by his preceptor. Hinsa consists of giving pain to any sentient creature.
In the Viveksar it is written that in the year 1033 Vikram (976 A>D) the Dhundias, a sect of the Dhundias) came into being. The Dhundias have not faith in the worship of stone-idols and they always keep a piece of cloth tied to their mouths, except at the time of study and at no other time.
Q. - It is absolutely necessary to tie a piece of cloth to the mouth, for the microscopic creatures that live in the air are killed by the hot breath and, therefore, those that do not tie the piece of
cloth commit a sin (because they are responsible for the death of so many creatures).
A. ~ This argument is opposed to the dictates of knowledge and the canons of logical reasoning. The soul is eternal and cannot be killed by the hot breath. This what you also believe.
Q. - Of course, the soul does not perish but the hot breath expired by the mouth causes pain to many souls and one who causes pain to others is a sinner. For this reason, it is right to tie a piece of cloth around one's mouth.
A. ~What you propose to do can never be done. The affairs of the world can never be carried on, without causing pain to some creatures or others. If, according to your faith, the hot air emitted by the mouth causes pain, why do not the bodily movements like walking, sitting, raising hands, or the winking of the eye cause pain? Therefore, by following your line of argument, one cannot but come to the conclusion that to live without causing pain to others is impossible.
Q. - One should try his best to protect creatures. What is to be done of sometimes a man is helpless and cannot do his duty in this matter. The air is full of creatures. If we did not tie a piece of cloth to our mouths a larger number would be killed.
A. ~ Your statement is foolish, because if the piece of cloth is tied, a greater amount of pain is caused to the creatures concerned, for, when this is done or the mouths remain shut up the air which is to be exhaled up by the mouth, getting no egress, is collected and then forcibly pushes itself at the sides in the first case and out of the nose in the second. The air will, thus, get hotter and will, therefore, according to you, cause greater pain.
Now, just mark! If all the doors of a house or a cell are shut up or screened, its temperature mounts up to a higher degree than it was when they were open. By following your line of argument it is, therefore, proved that you cause greater pain to a live creatures, for if the mouth is tied the accumulated air, which is pushed out through the nostrils, must needs strike against the living creatures with greater force and inflict great suffering on them.
Take another example. One man sets the fire ablaze by blowing with the mouth, another tries to produce the same result by blowing through a tube. Now, the air in the mouth, being scattered over a greater area strikes the fire with less force in the first case than does the concentrated
the air in the tube. The same may be said of the air which is concentrated in the nostrils on account of the mouth being closed. Those, therefore, who do not tie the piece of cloth to their mouths are more righteous than those who do. Another disadvantage of this practice is that the letters cannot be properly articulated, enunciated and pronounced. Is it not faulty to utter with a nasal twanging word which ought not to be pronounced like that.
Again, the mouth begins to give forth stench which comes from within (and is not allowed to escape). All the air that comes out is foul. If it is not allowed to go out, it must give out a bad smell.
A latrine which is ill-ventilated stinks more than one which is well-ventilated. The Jainees tie their mouths, do not clean their teeth, nor wash their faces, nor bathe, they, therefore, increase disease by the emitting stench and thus commit a sin. Whenever there is a great fair, diseases like cholera spread on account of the increase of foulness in the air and decimate the people. if the foulness be less, the diseases do not spread so rapidly.
The Jains contribute a good deal more to the foulness of the air than other people and are, therefore, greater sinners than those who do not tie the piece of cloth and are particular about cleaning their teeth, washing their faces and bathing and keeping their clothes clean. The latter is much better than the former, even as those that keep away from dirty outcasts* are good men.
The intellect of a Jainee cannot but be obfuscated even as that of a person who keeps company with filthy latrine-sweepers is never illumined. A diseased person who has got a perverted intellect cannot follow the precepts of Dharma. This truth must need to apply to the case of the Jainees.
Q. - The flames of fire burnt in a closed house cannot escape and give pain to creatures outside the house, even so by tying the piece of cloth to the mouth, creatures outside it are not pained. When the fire is burning in front of one and he protects himself by keeping his hand traversed before his face, he does not feel so much the effects of heat. The creatures in the air possess bodies and are, therefore, subject to pain.
A. ~ This is a childish statement. In the first place, fire cannot be burnt in a house the walls of which possess no chinks and the air inside cannot communicate with the outside air and vice versa. You can see this for yourself. Put a lighted candle in a closed
*Such people as attend to latrines, etc.-Tr.
vessel and it will be extinguished all of a sudden. Just as sentient creatures cannot live so long as they do not momentarily get fresh supplies of air from the atmosphere, so there can be no combustion without air. If the force of a flame is checked at one end, it will escape at the other with greater vigor. If the face is protected by the hand from the effects of heat, the had itself is exposed to it to a greater degree. You, therefore, are not the right point.
Q. - Everybody knows that when a man of an inferior standing desires to whisper something to a man of superior position or draws nearer to him for conversational convenience, he puts over his mouth either a piece of cloth or his own hand, so that his companion may not feel any offensive smell or the spittle be thrown at him. When a man reads aloud from a book particle of saliva do, undoubtedly, soil it. For the reasons explained above, it is highly desirable to tie a piece of cloth over the mouth.
A. ~ From your statement it may be safely inferred that it is foolish to cover the mouth with the object of affording relief to creatures. When a man is engaged in a private conversation with a person of superior standing he covers the mouth with a cloth or with hand so that the talk may not be overheard. If it is not so, why is it not covered when the conversation is not of a confidential character? Your mouth and other bodily organs give out an offensive smell, because you do no clean your teeth.
No wonder, then, that your proximity offends the olfactory sense of one who sits by you. The reason why the mouth is covered with the hand or the cloth is other than that stated by you. When something confidential is whispered in the presence of many people and the mouth be not covered, it is very likely that the vibrations of air (being unrestricted in their course) will carry the sound far and wide.
When the talk is carried on at a place where none is present except the speaker and the person spoken to, the mouth is not covered. If the object of covering the mouth is to save the face of a man of superior position from being soiled with the particles of spittle (ejected from the mouth of the speaker) it may be concluded that there is no harm if the spittle falls on persons of an inferior rank. In fact, the spittle cannot but reach the person spoken to. Suppose the person talking to you is sitting at a safe distance but the air blows that way, the minute particles of spittle will, of a surety, be carried to his body with the current of air.
It is foolish to think that contamination of the heat of the exhales air could kill animalcules living in the air or give pain to them; becaus4e that case the heat of midsummer would kill them all. It is, therefore, wrong to say that they are killed that way. Your religious belief (as regards tying the cloth) is, therefore, false. If your Tirthankaras had been profoundly learned men, they would not have made such foolish statements.34. Who feels pain?
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Again, only those creatures are capable of feeling pain whose thinking faculty is provided with all the sense-organs.
Here is our authority for this statement:-
"The soul feels pleasure or pain only when the five organs of sense come in contact with their objects." SANKHA SHASTRA., 25 -27.
Just as a shower of vituperative epithets cannot produce any change in the consciousness if one is deaf; the flitting in front of one of the various forms and animals like the snake and the wolf cannot affect him who is blind; odors cannot affect one whose olfactory apparatus is out of order; tactile sensations cannot be felt by one suffering from anesthesia, and sensations of taste cannot be experienced by one who had got no tongue. In like manner, these little creatures do not feel pain.
Just Mark! At the time of profound slumber the soul of man does not feel pleasure or pain; for though it is even then present in the body, its connection with the bodily organs is interrupted. When a surgeon puts his patient under chloroform with a view to operate on his diseased organ, the patient is quite insensible to pain; similarly, the atmospheric and other (microscopic) animalcules are not sensible to pleasure and pain (because they do not possess the sense-organs). Just as a being who is comatose cannot feel pleasure or pain, so cannot these creatures, because they are always in a state of stupor. Why, then, talk of saving them from pain?
Q. - When all souls are subject to pleasure and pain, why are not theirs so?
A. ~ Credulous people! tell us why you do not feel pleasure or pain when you are in the enjoyment of dreamless sleep. The cause of pleasure and pain is evidently the connection (between the soul and the sense-organs). We have already stated that when surgeons amputate limbs or open bodily cavities of their patients under chloroform, they are not at all sensible to a pain; similarly,
the souls that are in a perpetual stupor cannot experience the sensations of pleasure or pain, because they have not the means of doing so.
A. ~ This belief of your has its roots in ignorance. How can it be believed that, by eating vegetables, any creatures are pained or killed? Do you know by direct cognition that they feel? If so, please tell us how may we also attain this knowledge. Neither you know it yourself, nor can you demonstrate it to us. If this knowledge cannot be gained by direct cognition, it is no use appealing to the inferential mode of reasoning, analogy and authority.
Again, as we have explained above, it is a mistake on the part of your Tirthankaras to think that souls that are enveloped in great darkness and are in an extreme stupor or coma can experience pleasurable or painful sensations. Your Firthankaras have preached to you doctrines utterly opposed to sound reasoning and dictates of knowledge.
How can an infinite number of creatures reside in an object which is limited as regards extension? When we know that a great root such as radish is limited in size, how can it be believed that it can hold an infinite number of animalcules? The argument advanced by you is, therefore, foolish.
Q. - You commit a sin in drinking water that has not been heated by fire. You should, like us, drink the water that has been heated.
A. ~ This is also foolish. When you heat the water, all the animalcules in it must need to die. The particles of their bodies are so thoroughly mixed with water which is being boiled, you in a way drink a decoction of the dead bodies of those tiny creatures.* You are, therefore, very great sinners.
Those that drink water that has not been heated commit no sin because when the cold water will be heated in the stomach the animalcules will escape with the hot air which will be exhaled. To speak the truth, neither the one set of people commits a sin nor the other, for the tiny (microscopic) creatures, as has been proved above, are insensible to pleasure and pain.
* The author has here tried to fight the Jainees with their own weapons. It should not be understood that he is against the use of boiled water.-Tr.
Q. - If the fire in the stomach can send up the animalcules, why cannot the heat, applied externally, drive them away?
A. ~ Of course, they are driven away. But, according to you, animalcules are killed even by the hot exhalations from the mouth, why will they not, then, be killed by the heat of the water or be excessively pained before they go out of their bodies or be completely mixed up with the water. Will you not be greater sinners in that way?
Q. - We never heat water with our own hands, nor do we ask any householder among us to do so. We, therefore, commit no sin.
A. ~ If you refused to sue boiled water or to drink it, the householder would not heat it (for you), you are, therefore, answerable for the sin. You are, we think, greater sinners than the householders because if you had asked a particular householder to heat water, it would have been heated only once at a time. Now, because the householders do not know when one of you sadhus will turn up, each one keeps boiled water are, therefore, the chief sinner.
By following the same line of argument, it may be proved that it is you that are chiefly answerable for the sin involved in combustion, in the cooking of food and in carrying on agricultural operations and, therefore, deserve to be sent to hell. Being the chief cause of water being heated and the chief preachers of the desirability of drinking boiled water and not using cold unboiled water you are the chief sinners, and those that follow are also sinners.
Again, it cannot be gainsaid that you are engrossed in ignorance. Is it not a sin to take pity upon tiny creatures and to malign and injure non-Jains? If the doctrines preached by your Tirthankaras are true tell us why (your) God ahs caused so many rivers to flow and created so much water since the beginning of the world. He ought not to have produced even the sun, for, according to your belief, its heat must be causing the death of billions of creatures. When those to whom you ascribe Divine power (i.e., your Tirthankaras) have been eternally present, why did they not, out of their mercy, deprive the sin of its heat and stop the formation of clouds.
We have already proved that it is only the creatures and not those living on green roots and tubers, etc., creatures possessing
* The questioner here is supposed to be the Jain Sadhu as distinguished from a Jain householder.
visible bodies can experience feelings of pleasure and pain. Again, it is a source of pain to be always merciful towards all creatures, for if all (these creatures) were, according to your belief, to be reincarnated as human beings, and even the thieves and robbers among them were not punished, sin would increase fearfully. Hence (true) mercy consists in inflicting condign punishment on the wicked and protecting the righteous.
The reverse of this is a negation of mercy and forgiveness. There are many Jainees who are shopkeepers, tell lies in the course of business, gain money by fraud, and cheat the poor. Why do you not, in your sermons, lay special stress on the desirability of their giving up such wicked practices? Why do you resort to trickery like that of covering the mouth.
When you initiate a new votary (male or female) why do you lay yourself open to the charge of cruelty towards self and others by pulling the hair and compelling the novitiate to fast and thus giving him as well as yourself pain? Why do you not consider it a sin to ride elephants, horses, oxen, and camels and so make other people labor for you?
If the ordinary men among you cannot prove to be true what is obviously foolish and nonsensical, even your tirthankaras cannot do it. When you recite portions of your religious books it is clear that, according to your belief, your disciples and yourself kill many creatures. Why should you become the chief factor in the commission of this sin?
We have not treated the subject in detail but it should be clearly understood that creatures in a state of stupor that possess bodies devoid of the power locomotion cannot experience sensations of pleasures and pain. 35. The height and age of the Jain 24 Tirthankaras (teachers).
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Now, we shall comment on a few more fatuities taught by the Jain religion. It should be borne in mind that a Dhanush is for the purpose measurement, three and a half times the length of a human hand, the true measure we have already treated. In the Ratnasar, Part 1 (page 166 and 167), it is written:-
The body of -
| Nos. || Jain Tirthankaras (teachers) ||Dhanush long|| Purva years old
|1 ||Rishabhdeva ||500 ||8,400,000 |
|2 ||Ajitnath||450 ||7,200,000 |
|3 ||Shambhunath ||400 ||6,000,000 |
|4 ||Abhinanadan ||350 ||5,000,000 |
|25 ||Somatinath ||300 ||4,000,000 |
| Nos. || Jain Tirthankaras (teachers) ||Dhanush long|| Purva years old
|6 ||Padmaprabha ||140 ||3,000,000 |
|7 ||Parehasnath ||200 ||2,000,000 |
|8 ||Chandraprabha ||150 ||1,000,000 |
|9 ||Suvidbinath ||100 ||200,000 |
|10 ||Shitalnath ||90 ||200,000 |
|11 ||Shreyansnath ||80 ||8,400,000 |
|12 ||Vasupujya swami ||70 ||7,200,000 |
|13 ||Vimalnath ||60 ||6,000,000 |
|14 ||Anantnath ||40 ||3,000,000 |
|15 ||Dharmanath ||45 ||1,000,000 |
|16 ||Shatninath ||35 ||100,000 |
|17 ||Kunthanath ||30 ||95,000 |
|18 ||Amarnath ||30 ||84,000 |
|19 ||Mallinath ||25 ||55,000 |
|20 ||Munisuvritt ||20 ||30,000 |
|21 ||Neminath ||14 ||10,000 |
|22 ||Neminath ||10 ||10,000 |
|23 ||Parisnath ||9 ||100 |
|24 ||Mahavirswami ||7||72 |
The above-named twenty-four were the chief preceptors and teachers of the Jainees, who founded the Jain religion. The Jainees ascribe to them the attributes of God. All of them are believed to have attained salvation. Let the wise consider if it is possible for any man to have so gigantic a body and live so long.
If the globe were inhabited by people of such dimensions, very few would be contained by it. Following the example of the Jainees, the Pauraniks have written of persons who lived for 1,000 years and of others again who lived for 10,000 years and even for 100,000 years. All this is absurd and so is what the Jainees say. Here are few more absurd statements made by the Jain teachers.
- Nagket lifted on his finger a stone as big as a village. - Kalp Bhashya, page 4).
- Mahavir pressed the earth with his finger. This caused the snake (which supports the earth) to tremble (ibid., page 46).
- Rice pudding was cooked on the foot of Mahavir but the limb was not burnt. (Ibid., page 47).
Now, mark! How false all these statements are? Is it ever possible for a man to lift a stone as big as a village on his finger or to press down the earth with his thumb? When there is no snake underground, hoe could it be said that it trembled? Why were the feet of Mahavir not burnt when pudding and rice were cooked upon them? Can a camel ever be contained in a small vessel?
- A camel was made to stand in a small vessel (Ibid., page 10).
- The dirt on the body should not be removed or rubbed away. (Ratnasar, part 1, page 14).
- A Jain Sadhu, named Damsar who was beloved of the Tirthankar Mahavir, chanted the aphorism which brings on terrible calamities and a city was set on fire (Viveksar, part 1, page 15)
- The king must need be obeyed (Viveksar, part 1, page 14).
- A prostitute named Koshar heaped up oil-seeds in a plate and fixed in the heap a needle covered with flowers and danced on it. The food, however, was not pricked by the needle, nor was the heap of oil-seeds scattered (Ibid., page 227).
- The sage Sothulmuni misconducted with this very prostitute for 12 years, afterward he got himself initiated and attained final beatitude, and so did the prostitute, because she followed the precepts of the Jain religion (Tatvaviveka, page228).
- The loose jacket of an ascetic always bestowed 500 mohars on a prostitute (Viveksar, part 1, page 185).
- If the precepts of religion are disregarded in obedience to the commands of a physically strong man, of a God, of a spiritual guide, of one's parents, family priest and relations and at the critical conjuncture of time in the jungle, the merit (to be earned by the following those precepts) is not lost (Viveksar, part 1, page 228.
Those that do not wash away or rub away the dirt on their bodies must feel extreme discomfort on account of stench. The sadhu who burnt the city must be utterly cruel and merciless. When even the company of Mahavir could not purify his soul, hoe can the Jainees obtain salvation through him? Now that he is dead. Of course, it is right to obey the king but the Jains being banias* it is probable that this injunction was inspired by fear. It is utterly false to say that the prostitute Kosha - no matter hoe light her body was - could
* An Indian caste notorious for its cowardice.-Tr
have danced on a needle fixed in a heap of oil-seeds, without her foot being pinched or the seeds being scattered. One must always follow the precepts of Dharma, no matter what happens.
How can a garment which is only cloth bestow 800 gold mohars forever?
If we were to go on quoting such absurd stories, our books would become as voluminous as the Jain books. All that the Jain religion teaches is false, except a few injunctions.
Mark! What their books teach:-
The Jambu region has an area of 100,000 leagues. It is the first of the great regions. It contains two moons and two suns. In the salt-water ocean, there are 4 moons. In the (Dhatki) metal, region there are 12 suns and 12 moons. 12 by 3 is 36 and add to this the 2 suns and 2 moons belonging to Jambu region and 4 belonging to salt-water ocean and you find that there are 42 suns and 42 moons in the Kalodahdhi black ocean.
In like manner 42 by 3 = 126, add to this number of suns and moons, the 4 suns and 4 moons belonging to the salt-water ocean, 12 belonging to the region of Dhakti and two belonging to the Jambu region and you will find that there are 144 moons in the Pushkar.
This calculation embraces only the inhabited portion of the globe which is half the whole. There are many suns and moons in the uninhabited portion also. But they are stationary. 144 by 3 = 432, add 2 of jambu, 4 of salt-water ocean, 12 of Dhatki, and 42 of Kalodadhi, and you will find that there are 492 suns and 492 moons in the Pushkar region.
All this has been taught by Shri Jina Bhadra Ganik Sahma Shramana in the large and important books in Sanghyani, Yetisakarandak Payanna, Charndrapannati and Surapannati - books which treat of Jain beliefs. Prakaran Ratnakar, 4-77.
Now mark! Ye scholars of Geography and Geology. The Jains believe that in this earth there are 492 moons according to one mode of calculation and innumerable suns and moons according to another mode of calculation. You are very fortunate that, by the study of Surya Siddhant and other astronomical
works written by followers in the Veda, you have learned the real teachings of these sciences. If you have been enveloped in the darkness of Jainism, you would be groping in the dark as the Jainees are. These ignorant people must have thought that one sun and one moon do for the whole Jambu region, for it would be impossible for one sun and one moon to light up so huge a body as the earth in 24 hours. People who believe the earth to be larger than the sun falls into mistakes like this.
Again the Jain books teach:-
"Now we shall deal with the number of chains of the suns and the moons. There are two chains of the suns and the moons. Each moves at a distance of 10,000 leagues from the one next to it. There is a chain of moons next to a chain of suns and a chain suns next to a chain of moons. In this way there are 4 chains after circumvallating the Mound Meru of the Jambu region, move about in the inhabited portion of the globe.
When one sun moves to the south of the Meru anther moves to the north if it. In each direction of the salt-water ocean two suns move about, in the region of Dhatki 6 suns move about, in the region of Kalodadhi 21 and in the Pushkar region 26. in this way 66 suns fly about in the northerly direction and 66 in the southerly direction according to the laws of their motion. If we add up, we find that 132 suns and 132 moons move about in the inhabited portion of the globe.
There are many chains of constellations in connection with the moons." Prakaran Ratnakar, 4-79.
Now, mark! Perhaps 132 suns and 132 moons are to be found in the houses of the Jainees and, if they are, it would be a wonder how the inmates can stand the heat of so many suns and are not frozen by the cold night. Such preposterous stories can e credited only by those that are ignorant of the sciences of Geography and Geology. When one sun actually lights up many planets like ours how can its capacity to light up our little earth be doubted?
If the earth were to remain stationary and the sun was to move around the earth, we would be in light or darkness from many a year. Sumeru is another name for the Himalayas. It is even smaller in comparison with the sun as the mustard seed
is in comparison with the pitcher. The Jainees will never understand these (scientific) facts and will continue to grope in the dark so long as they continue in their own religion.
Again the Jain teachers say:-
"Righteous souls that have attained salvation will, on account of being free, roam about the 14 kingdoms. This is due to the power of their psychic faculties." On the crest of the 14th kingdom a little above the flag of the airship which secures the gratification of all desires there is, according to the Jains, Siddhshila or the Divyakash otherwise called Shivpura. Only perfect beings, that is those that have attained the state of omniscience and perfect purity, go to this region and become All-knowing, on account of their psychic powers." Prakaran Ratnakar
Now, what is limited by space cannot be All-pervading, and what is not All-pervading can never be All-knowing. It can only be predicated of a soul which is circumscribed that it is enclosed (in a fleshy tenement) or emancipated, or possessed of knowledge or devoid of it.
This can be never be said of the All-pervading and All-knowing spirit. If the Trithankaras of the Jainees were of limited capacities and were circumscribed by space, they could never be Omnipresent and Omniscient, All-holy, and All-knowing. It is a pity that the Jainees do not believe in the Being who possesses these attributes.
Again, the Jain scripture says:-
"Human beings are divided into 2 classes. There are:-
The latter live for 3 Palyopamas and are 3 kosas long." Prakarna Ratnakar.
- Man who are born as the result of sexual intercourse.
- Those that are born without sexual congress.
We believe, very few men having so much age and such size can be contained in this world. Again, if they live for the full period, then the children that they will beget will also be like them. In a city like Bombay only 2 such men can live, and in a city like Calcutta 3 or 4. the Jainees say that in towns lacs of such people lived. Then those towns must have extended over lakhs of miles. The entire universe cannot form one such town.
"Siddhshila, which is at a distance of 12 leagues above the flag of the air-ship that secures the fulfillment of all desires, is 45 lakhs of leagues in the area.
Sidha bhumi is the abode of perfect saints which is located in the Didhshila, white, resplendent, golden and transparent like crystal. Some people call it Ishat Pragbhra. At a distance of 12 miles from the air-ship that secures the fulfillment of all desire, there is the Alok (the region that cannot be felt).
This mystery is known to emancipated beings. The air-ship is 8 leagues thick in the middle. The Siddhshila is situated in 4 directions and then curbs from there. It is shaped like an open umbrella and is then like the wing of a very small fly. At the distance of 1 mile above that shila is the extremity of the region of bliss. Beings that have attained to a state of perfection dwell there." Prakaran Ratnakar
Now mark! The Jain abode of bliss is above the flag of the air-ship and ahs an area of 4 and a half million leagues. The emancipated souls are there in a state of imprisonment, no matter how beautiful and transparent it is, because the moment they quit they will cease to enjoy the bliss which is an accompaniment of a state of salvation. Besides, if the live cooped up in that abode they cannot breathe fresh air. All this is a net of fraud spread with a view to ensnaring ignorant people.
Again, it is written in the Jain books:-
"The greatest length of the body of a creature possessing only one organ of sense is 1,000 leagues, of that of a creature possessing two organs of sense (like the conch-shell), is 12 leagues, of that of a creature possessing five organs of sense 1,000 leagues. Prakaran Ratnakar
If there were beings of the bodily length of 1,000 leagues, the entire globe would become full to overflowing and will, perhaps,
accommodate only a few hundreds. If at that time, people ask them where they should live and also hoe to find their way, and what is written in the books would be looked up in their own houses. But for a person of the bodily length of 4000 kosas a house of the light of 320,000 kosas at least is required. Even if the Jain community were to spend all its accumulated wealth, a house of such dimensions could not be built. How will they obtain beams to build a roof extending over 8000 miles? How could a pillar be placed in a house like this? All that is, therefore, false.
Again, in the same book it is written:-
" A well 4 kosas in width and 4 kosas in depth is filled with hair each of the length of a finger. All the parts into which the hair of the length, of a finger, can be divided are 2,097,152 in number. The hairs contained in a palyopama of the extent of 330,762,108, 246,562,542,199,609,753,610,000,000 constitute sankhyat kal number. If one conceives of so many parts of a hair that it is beyond the power of man to count them, he will be forming a conception of the Asankhyatqa." Prakaran Ratnakar, 4-4.
Now, look at the Jain mode of calculation! How can hair be the unit of calculation? When it is aid that to form the conception of the asankhyata divisions of a hair must be imagined, it is implied that in the first calculation (that of sankhyat kal) the hair was divided into so many billions of parts by means of the hand. When the hand could not do this work, the powers of imagination were enlisted. Is it even possible to divide into sankhyat parts a hair of the length of a finger? Again the same book says:
"The Jambu region is 4 lakhs of leagues in the area and is hollow in the center. There are in all seven Dwipas like the Jambu Dwipa and seven oceans like the salt oceans, etc., on this earth (as mentioned before). Each is twice the size of the Jambu Dwipa, i.e., one preceding it in order." Prakaran Ratnakar, 4-12.
Now, how can the dwipas the second of which is 200,000 yojans greater in size than the Jambu Dwipa, the third 400,000 yojans, the fourth 800,000 yojans, the fifth 1,600,000 yojans, the sixth 3,200,000 yojans and the seventh 6,400,000 yojans, and the seven seas of an equal or a greater size be contained in the globe the circumference of which is 5,000 yojans?
Q. ~ There are 84,000 rivers within the area of Kurukshetra (ibid4, 63).
A. ~ Kurukshetra is a small plot of land. Did not the Jain writers feel ashamed when they wrote down a falsehood without having ever visited the place.
The same books say:-
There are thrones to the due south and due north of this shila. The place to the due south is called Atipandu Kambla and that to the due north Atirike kambla. The Tirthankaras sit on these thrones." Prakaran Ratnakar.
Such is the place where the birth-day of the Tirthankaras is celebrated and such is the Jain abode of bliss.
There are many such cock-and-bull stories recorded in the Jain books. It is no use treating them all. There are three good points in the Jain religion:-
All the rest of their teachings are absurd to thoroughly incredible extent. In order to discuss all the stupid things written in the Jain books such a large number of books will have to be written that it would be impossible to go through them all in a
- Drinking filtered water.
- Showing mercy to tiny creatures (even though th4e mercy is only nominal).
- Abstaining from food at night-time.
life-time. Just as a straw shows which way the wind blows, so the few specimens of the Jain teachings given by us will apprise the gentle reader of the main current of the Jain thought. It is no use going into very great detail; a few words always suffice for the wise.Now we shall treat of Christianity in the next chapter.
THE END OF CHAPTER 12
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