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One True Religion
India in Europe
by Anwar Shaik
About seventy years ago, it was taught in all Indian schools that the Hindus had never travelled abroad. This myth was believed in so strongly that when Mohandas Karam Chand, alias Mahatama Gandhi, was about to leave for England, his people gathered to harangue him, and fined him four annas for embarking upon such an unvedic act.

Reluctance to write history has been a serious omission of India's forefathers. How could such people, who never left their own shores, make any cultural contribution to the betterment of other nations? This is a logical conclusion of the myth which stems from ignoring historiography. Realising this weakness, some Indian writers have resorted to forging history; it is an act of gross disservice to the Indian nation, which has greater cultural and scientific achievemenls to its credit than any other people.

When we delve deeper into ancient history, it becomes evident that it was the Vedic Indians who brought civilisation to Europe. Anwar Shaikh presents this thesis in his two-part article: "India In Europe," and further illustrates it with reference to Wales, his adopted home, where he has settled for the last four decades. He was surprised to know that the old Hindu female names such as Sheela, Leela and Veida are still used in the rural areas of Wales. The old priestly class of Wales known as the Druids are an extension of the Indian pundits, and the fearless Pelagius, who taught the Vedic philosophy of Karma 1700 years ago despite being a Christian monk, was also a Welshman.

India in Europe
"In Asia all roads lead from India, " asserted the famous American historian, Will Durant, quoting "Patanjali in Brown, " on page 602 of The Story of Civilisation. Illustrating this point, he stated that, as the "Indian art had accompanied Indian religion ... into Ceylon, Java, Cambodia, Siam, Burma, Tibet, Khotan, Turkestan, Mongolia, China, Korea and Japan" these countries received civilisation from India.

Dr. Durant's remarks concern the spread of Buddhism, an Indian religion; it rose in opposition to the Vedic faith, which had existed centuries earlier. When this fact is taken into consideration, India, the home of Vedas, ranks as the fountain of civilisation.

Ignorance about the global cultural import of the Vedas is a great tragedy to the psyche of the Indian people. Those who do not know their history, do not know themselves. The history of a nation is the mirror that reflects its past to guide its future. Especially, a worthwhile past is the fountain of national pride, which is an essential ingredient of a people's greatness.

No nation has suffered half as much through ignorance of history as have the Indians, and it equally applies to both the Hindus and Muslims. Apathy on this account, has led to the loss of national unity, which has proved fatal to the honour and dignity of India over the last 1000 years.

Ancient India played the pioneering role in world civilisation but adopted a hostile attitude towards historiography - the art of writing history. One could blame the brahmans for this sinful omission but it would be wrong to do so because they were as much governed by the force of tradition as their fellow-men.

Veda means knowledge, and it was realised in India that knowledge is power, but power is power only if it concentrates in fewer hands; larger partnership dilutes power, turning it into weakness. To the detriment of India, the tradition this approach fostered was spiritual, making it a part of an individual's faith that the secret of power lay in knowledge of God (Brahman), the Cosmic Reality. The more one knew of God, the more powerful one became. Therefore, dissemination of such knowledge amounted to draining away one's self to reinforce others. This could be done only by promoting dislike of writing. If the masses were kept illiterate and had no access to the (written) Vedas, they would not know anything about them, and the power of the brahmans (priestly class) would remain intact and likely to grow.

The lethal effect of this tradition has asserted itself loud and clear, not only in India, but also in all those lands where the Indians settled. This is why that India has no written record of history and whatever is known about her, is a contribution of the foreign observers. The Celts, who were people of Indian origin, left no history for the same reason even though they ruled almost entire Europe for over 500 years.

Ignorance of the Indian history was so stupefying that, until about a century ago, it was believed that the Hindus had never set their foot on the foreign soil; as a result, travelling abroad, came to be held a sinful act for a Hindu. This is the reason that when Mahatma Gandhi wanted to go to England, the members of his caste kicked up a big fuss. Declaring him a renegade, they fined him four annas. What an example of mental regression!

Of course, Buddhism is an ambassador of the Indian culture but it is based on the opposition of the Vedas, and is a comparatively recent event. Of course, Buddhism has its own glory but it is the Vedas, which acted as the fountain of world civilisation.

This is a big statement, and necessitates mention of certain facts which gave India cultural precedence over other nations. If it cannot be established, the Vedas could not play the leading cultural role in the world. I suggest following points in this context:
1. Iron, and the concept of morality,
2. Cotton, Sericulture and Rice,
3. Mathematics,
4. The Aryans, and
5. The Vedas.

1. Iron and the Concept of Morality:
The Rgveda is the first book ever to mention the word: Iron. In fact, it states this fact twenty times in various contexts. The scriptural height of the Rgveda is revealed by Verse 15 of hymn LXXV, Book VI, which states that the Ksatriyas used arrows which had iron tips but they were not allowed to smear them with venom.

Forbidding soldiers to use poisonous arrows, as the laws of Manu clearly state, is not only an act of high morality but also reveals that the concept of moral conscience probably first arose in India.

It is obvious that the world civilisation would not have gone very far without iron technology, which was invented in India and later introduced in other parts of the world such as Central Asia and Europe, when the Indians migrated through the northern passes. It is known thdt it was the Celts (people from the Panjab) who introduced into Britain iron tools, which helped clear the forests to make soil cultivation easy and beneficial.

Not only iron is an invention ot India but steel is also an Indian ingenuily. Exploiting the lack of Hindu pride in their past, the Arabs claimed this honour and called it "Damascus Steel." Both the East and the West marvelled at the indestructable edge of the "Islamic" sword but nobody knew anything about its origin. The Hindus, who had adopted "non-violence" as the way of life, did not like manufacturing swords and preferred exporting the metal cakes, which were forged by the Arab smiths into swords and daggers bearing a faint mottled pattern known as "Muhammad's ladder."

Nobody could have imagined that India, which lost its political glory to the Muslim invaders, could invent such a glorious metal. Very high, of course, is the price of political fall. However, the truth has the tendency to sparkle through the dark labyrinths of falsehood. Having traced the origin of steel to India, the Western curiosity became restless to discover the secret of this Indian ingenuity. It started with Michael Faraday of London's Royal Institution. Though he failed to achieve complete success, he came very close to inventing its stainless variety. This honour was reserved for a Frenchman, Jean Robut Breant, inspector of assays at the Parisian mint. After no fewer than 300 mind-raking experiments, he declared that the extraordinary hardness of the metal was produced by its high carbon content of around 1 and a half %. He was right but he could not detect the correct method of working the metal. Whenever, the Western smiths heated the "Damascus" steel, it became brittle; it either shattered or crumbled. Since it was by far the best steel until 1980, detection of its working method ranked high in the West. Eventually, the secret was unearthed by two Americans - Oleg Skirby and Jeffrey Wadsworth. They discovered that the metal should be worked at about 800 C, but carbon is initially combined into course lumps of iron carbide; repeated working at the right temperatures breaks it up to give it even mix. This produces the characteristic surface markings and is the source of hardness and strength. What a story of the Indian ingenuity and what a shame of losing this honour to the Arabs, who never divulged the truth!

Not only steel is an invention of India but Stainless Steel is one of its ancient ingenuities. Vikarmaditya in 389 A.D erected a steel pillar at Delhi to commernorate his victories The pillar does not rust and thus it has become a tourist attraction for defying the effect of the combined forces of the sun, rain and wind. The technological feat that this pillar displays is believed to go back to 1500 B.C. or earlier.

At this juncture, one ought to note the fall in the Hindu character. The people who invented iron and steel and fought so heroically that they thought it a sin to poison the tips of their arrows, are now afraid of their own shadows. They believe in non-violence as a morality to hide their pusillanimity!

2. Cotton, Sericulture and Rice:
The archaelogical excavations of the Indus Valley have shown that India was the first country to grow cotton and invent the art of spinning and weaving cloth at least 3000 B.C. if not earlier. Since nudity was first spurned in India, she ranks as the fountain of civilisation.

Ascribing the invention of silk to China is possibly another usurption of Indian glory because there is a reference to silk- worm in the Vedas. It is also known that silk turbans of red colour were used by the brahmans in sacrificial rites. Again, India, like China, was an exporter of silken goods in the antiquity. Of course, China became more advanced in silk production but its claim to be the originator of this art is dubious.

It is also now universally acknowledged that rice was first produced in India. Those who know something about agriculture, are aware of the fact that growing rice needs much greater skill than producing other crops such as wheat, barley or millet. In fact, it requires a fairly well-developed water technology to be able to harvest rice. The Far-Eastern countries, where rice is the staple diet, learnt this art from the Indians who settled in these lands as missionaries, traders and conquerors.

3. Mathematics:
It was India which invented mathematics except geometry. The decimal system also originated in the land of the Vedas. Both Aryabhata and Brahmagupta knew it long before Muhammad Ibn Musa al Khawarzmi had any idea of it. The Arabs claimed this honour until historians noticed "Arabic" numerals on the Rock Edicts of Ashoka dating back to 256 B.C. They are actually Indian numerals.

4 & 5. Aryans and the Vedas:
I have already discussed in a previous article that the Aryans were Indians for being people from the Panjab which is the home of the Rgveda and Sanskrit. Since Vedas are the Scriptures of the Aryans, they could not have been uncouth. In view of the above discussion, they were the most advanced people of their time. Wherever they went, they took the Vedas with them to spread civilisation in the East and the West. I will explain these points as the discussion progresses.

Writing "The Discovery of India," Pundit Jawahar Lal Nehru noted on page 11: " I remember when I first read .... an account ot the history of South-East Asia, how amazed I was and how excited I became. New panoramas opened out before me, new perspectives af history, new conceptions of India's past, and I had to adjust all my thinking and previous notions to them."

Had the Hindus known about their past, they would not have sunk so low as they have. How many of them have ever heard of Sailendra, a great Indian soldier whose military exploits match those of Alexander, the Great, Julius Caesar and Napoleon? Obviously, not many. It sounds even more incredible when history states that the Indians founded a powerful empire abroad in the 8th century A.D. This magnificent empire comprised the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, Bali, Borneo and other islands of the East Indies. In fact, the Indian political hegemony extended far beyond to include Champa ( Annam ), Cambodia, Burma, Siam and Indo-China. Strange it may seem but true it is because evidence for the political empire of India, consists of foreign sources such as accounts of the Arab travellers, China's historical records, old inscriptions and the remains of Indian literature rich in Sanskrit words and the Indian mythology.

The Indian civilisation in South-East Asia lasted for over 1000 years, and is referred to as Greater India. It has always been known to the foreign historians but the people of India heard of it about fifty years ago! What a pity that the Indians are aware of their poiitical degradation but totally ignorant of their glory. Indian dislike of historiography has been so great a bane of this country that the story of Greater India is not sufficient to explain it because of its comparatively modern origin. To assess the true greatness, glory and grandeur of India, one must analyse the sands of ancient history which still flicker with the Vedic beneficence and depict the stature of the Vedic man which is above the dwarfed mind of the modern Hindus.

What I am about to say is new in the sense that it is little known, and has not been described in the proper Vedic context, which ought to exhibit its cultural and spiritual benevolence, especially to Europe, and the world at large. If yearning for glory is not accompanied by realisation, it causes a psychological vacuum leading to inferiority complex. This is what has prompted some Hindu writers to fake history to prop up their ego. It is wrong; manipulation of history is a disservice to the nation and mankind. I am, therefore, determined to resist this temptation, and shall base discussion on the following two articles from the Encyclopaedia Britannica:
1. Celtic Religion, and The reason for such a preference is simple: these articles have been written by the non-Hindu scholars dedicated to their subject through study and research, and they have demonstrated genuine respect for the issue through a high degree of honesty, sincerity and accuracy:

The Celts were prehistoric people who had settled north of the Alps. In different countries, they were known by different names: the Greeks called them Keltoi and the Romans referred to them as the Gauls. By the 5th century B.C. when they became the predominant people of Europe, their settlements extended through a great part of the continent i.e. from Ireland and Britain to the Balkans including Anatolia. Not only were they large in number to fill the empty lands of Europe, but also their creative activity contributed to the development of the prehistoric Europe. One of their drawbacks was that they never formed a united ethnic group, and were thus divided into many tribes, having different dialects. Though their power in various European countries during the 5th -1st centuries B.C. had reached its zenith, they did not possess what may be termed as an empire.

The Celtic way of life is represented by what is called the La Tene culture named after a Swiss archaelogical site on Lake Neuchatel. Archaeologists have made a thorough study of it, and it represents the second Early Iron Age. It is difficult to describe with certainty the Celtic history before the 5th century B.C.

One ought to know that modern France, southern Germany as far as central Bohemia, once formed part of the Celtic colonisation. It is possible to trace their origin to the Bronze age Tumulus culture, which had reached its full development by 1200 B.C. The succeeding culture known as the Urnfield culture (1200-800 B.C.) refers to the burial customs of the people of that era. This is also true about the following Hallstatt Period (7th-6th centuries B.C.) associated with the burial ground near Hallstatt in upper Austria. One ought to realise that practically the entire Europe belonged to the Celts by the 5th century B.C. through conquest and colonisation; the Greek and Roman states were barely visible on the European map during that period.

Having described a short history of the Celts, now I may enumerate some of their cultural peculiarities and religious beliefs:
1. The Celts buried their dead in chamber graves. The splendour of the grave demonstrated the greatness of the buried person. The mound graves known as barrows at Apremont (Haute-Saone) have an average diameter of seventy metres, and contain a wagon, gold objects and various ornaments. These are the graves of the men who were princes, chieftains and notable warriors.

2. Physically, the Celts possessed high stature, masculine appearance and a colouring not quite white, which eventually became milky under the effect of the cold climes.

3. They loved war, adventure and feasting.

4. Some of their kings were hereditary and some were elected.

5. In certain parts of Europe, such as Ireland and Wales, the Celtic society was divided into three strata: king, warrior aristocracy and freeman farmer. However, there was also the fourth social order comprising of lesser men who placed themselves under the protection of a powerful lord. Historians call it clientalism.

6. The family was patriarchal i.e. headed by a male, and kinship was recognised by agnatic descent i.e. from father's side.

7. The landownership belonged to the family and not the individual.

8. The household was organised on the principle of extended family i.e. consisting of a man, wives, children and grandchildren.

9. Druid or priest came from the warrior class, but ranked higher than him. Educating the young noble was one of the responsibilities of the priests. Woods, groves and some individual trees were sacred to them. They did not have any temples. The priests were responsible for conducting sacrifices.

10. Men wore trousers with a belted tunic or shirt, preferably with a cloak, but women wore a single garment with a cloak. The clothes were made of linen or wool and were usually of bright gaudy colour.

11. They loved music, drinking, feasting and quarrelling and could not do what required a long concerted effort. Hospitality was their special characteristic. At feasts, bards sang the praises of their lords, and their singing was accompanled by a lyre-like instrument.

12. Though the Celts dominated Europe for five centuries, they did not build an empire because tribe happened to be their basic political unit.

At this point, I ought to raise the question:

Who were the Celts?

In view of the seriousness of this enquiry, I should provide an answer on two accounts:
a. Cultural, and
b. Religious. a. Culture:
Speaking culturally, I should add that the above mentioned twelve points clearly state that the Celts could have come from India only because they practised the Rgvedic culture peculiar to the Punjab, where the Hindu Scriptures were composed. Now I may explain this truth point by point in the same order:

a. The Celts are thought to have entered Europe in the 12th century B.C. but this date can be moved back by another 500 years on the authority of the Rgveda. The Ksatriya way of burying the dead on high grounds, found in Europe as the barrows or mound-graves, is clearly stated in the Rgveda. Here are some couplets from the hymn XVIII, book X, dedicated to various Deities. The period involved is so ancient that at that time the God of Death, Judge and Ruler of the departed, was not God Yama but God Myrtu; it is not that Yama was unknown:
"Go hence, O Death ..... Touch not our offspring, injure not our heroes." (Stanza one)

The word: "heroes" in the present context is important because the mound-graves were meant for the Ksatriya chieftains:
"..may they bury Death beneath this mountain." (Stanza 4)

I should stress that there is no mention of cremation in the Rgveda. Historians, have erroneously remarked that the Rgvedic society had temporarily suspended the burning of the widows. It seems that there had developed a custom which required the widow to lie down by the side of her dead husband to show her love and loyalty for him:
"Rise come into the World of life, O woman: come, he is lifeless by whose side thou lieth." (Stanza 8)

The other stanzas of the hymn support the idea that the mound-graves belong to the Ksatriya warriors, who were buried:
"From the dead hand I take the bow he carried, so that it should become our power, might and glory." (Stanza 9)

The following stanzas clearly demonstrate that the Ksatriya warriors were buried during the Rgvedic age:
"Heave thyself, Earth, nor press the down - ward heavily: afford him easy access, gently tending him.
Cover him, as a mother wraps her skirt about her child, O Earth.
Now let the heaving earth be free from motion: year, let a thousand clods remain above him. Be they to him a home distilling fatness, here let them ever lie his place of refuge.
I stay the earth from thee, while over thee I place this piece of earth. May I be free from injury .." (Stanzas: 11, 12, 13)

I should add that some commentators think that the Ksatriya dead were cremated, and the urns containing their ashes were buried. Even if this be true, it involves burial and a grave.

At this juncture, I cannot help inserting a little digression: stanza 23 states that the earth is subject to motion. It is simply marvellous that even during the earliest part of human history, the Hindu mind knew that the earth was not static but eternally moved! Europe came to know of this secret through Galileo in the 16th century A.D.

4b. The stature and colouring of the Celts is of the Punjabi origin. Being the military sect, they loved war and feasting.

Their political system is essentially Vedic:

A man became king (Rajah or Samrat) through formal consecration, accompanied by hymns. This Hindu tradition was adopted by the Jews and Christians. The kingship was both hereditary and elective. This highest office of the state was more of a sacred duty than a secular dignity. As long as the king performed his function according to the Vedic law, son could succeed his father. If he proved unworthy of his job, he incurred deposition, and the people became entitled to elect a new ruler. Election also took place when the king left no issue. The principle of election is clearly stated in book X: GXXIV: 8:
"And they, like people who elect their ruler."

The kingship whether hereditary or elective was watched by two political bodies which may be described as lover and upper houses of a modern democratic government. One was called Sabha. It was a gathering of the elite and referred to the people in "conclave" and the "hall" where they met to deliberate and decide the important issues of the state to advise the ruler. The second chamber was known as Samiti; it was a general council chosen from the whole tribe and consisted of both commoners and elites.

Both Sabha and Samiti are mentioned in the Rgveda.

5b. This social division is the replica of Caste System described in R.V. X: XG: XII. It consisted of Brahman Ksatriya (Rajanya) Vaisya and Sudra. From other hymns of the Rgveda where Caste System is implied, one can construe that Brahman and Ksatriya were originally one class. Eventually, the learned Ksatriya emerged as brahmans and were acknowledged as the superior class for having monopoly of the Vedic knowledge and sacrificial functions. Vaisya of the Punjab were the freemen farmers of Europe and the European villeins who sought protection of a lord, were a close variant of the Punjabi Sudra, who were natives of the Punjab but mistakenly called people of foreign origin as Dasa and Dasyu, for being poor, precarious and propertyless.

6b. The Vedic society was strictly patriarchal. Head of the family had to be a male. It was necessary for a woman to be under the guardianship of a man - father, husband, or son. This Vedic custom became an essential part of the Roman Law.

7b and 8b. Since the Vedic pattern of living was patriarchal head of the family had to be powerful enough for exerting control over members of his family. Thus land belonged to family, controlled by the father. This situation is known as Patria Potestas. It became a rule of the Roman Law.

Another reason for the land to be in family ownership is the fact that the Vedic society practised extended-family culture which required parents, grandchildren and even members of the third generation to live as one family under the same roof.

9b. The word Druid ( Dru-Vid) contains the Vedic syllable Vid, meaning "to know," which is the root of Veda. The Celtic Druids (priests) were an offshoot of the Indian Brahman, who was the teacher and priest, ranked highest in the society, took 20-30 years to memorise the Scriptures to avoid writing them down, paid no taxes and believed in transmigration of souls.

The Druids had all these characteristics.
10b. An Indian male has always worn trousers and dhotis, and women have used skirt, and sari which is a single garment.

11b. Hospitality, gaudy clothing, colourful living, loud- speaking, feasting, love of music and dancing have always been the integral part of the Punjabi culture.

12b. The Rgveda in 126.1 and VIII 21.18 clearly shows that the basic political unit in the Punjab was based on clanish integrity, thus the country was divided into tribal principalities. The Punjabis are possibly the only people in the world who suffer from national self-hatred, and for this reason, have never united into a nation to reap political harvests. As these people migrated to the European lands; they took their anti-national habits with them and thus failed to build an empire. It took them centuries to weld their clanish systems into national identities. People of Scotland serve as a good example of this fact.

b. Religion:
The Rgveda, mostly emanates from rational cogitation, and therefore, it advocates free will which is opposed to fate as believed in by the Stoics, Christians and Muslims. I may cite Plagius, a Welsh monk, to explain the meaning of this concept:

1. He was born in Wales c. 354 A.D. Though a devout Christian known for piety and asceticism, he was opposed to the Christian doctrine of divine grace. He believed in moral law or free will which means that a person chooses heaven or hell as a matter of free will and not fate. Being a Celt, he had inherited this Vedic principle from his ancestors who had emigrated from the Punjab centuries earlier.

2. The author of the article: "Celtic Religion" has remarked (p. 1068, Enc. Britannica) that, owing to the religious, cultural and lingual similarities between the insular Celts, that is, the Irish and Welsh, and the people of India, it is obvious that they had "an ancient common heritage."

Geographically, both Ireland and Wales are parts of the British Isles. They have preserved some characteristics of their heritage, which conclusively demonstrate that the Celts came from the Panjab, India.

These Celts had inherited the evil habit of their Indian ancestors not to keep written record of anything, especially history and literature. Most of the information about them is known through the historical work of Poseidonius, a Stoic philosopher; Celtic sculpture and inscriptions provide additional guidance in this matter.

For better understanding of the discussion, I may remind the reader that the number three has a special significance in the Hindu religion: the syllable OM represents this point effectively: it is composed of three sounds a-u-m, which refer to several important triads such as three worlds of earth, atmosphere and heaven; Brahma, Vishnu and Siva, and three scriptures Rg. Yajur and Sama. Om is also the major mystical Hindu word, which symbolises the essence of the entire world.

The Hindus have always believed in three aspects of Godheads and thus sculpturally represented their major deities as three-headed or three gods as one i.e. Brahma, Vishnu and Siva:
"I laud the seven-rayed, the triple-headed, Agni all-perfect...." (R.V. I. CXLVI: 1 )

This principle is repeated in the three-faced figure of Siva (The Trimukha), an archaelogical find of the Indus Valley. At this juncture, I may introduce an important digression: Siva is a junior god of the Rgveda; since he has inherited the features of Agni, a senior god of the Rgveda, it shows that the Rgveda is much older than the Indus Valley Civilisation.

A god can be represented as three-headed or three gods can be treated as one. This is the Hindu doctrine of Trimurti, and this is also the basis of the Celtic gods. For example, Wales had a triad of Teutates, Esus and Taranis; they were appeased by human sacrifice - an extension of Purushamedha, fully described in the Yajurveda (Baoks XXX and XXXI).

The sculpture indicates that the Celtic pantheon had another triad of Cernunnos, the god with the horns of a stag, Sucellus, the god witk the mallet, and Taruos Trigaranus, the bull with three cranes.

In Gaul (France), the mother-goddess, known as Matres or Matronae, was also worshipped in triple form.

Another Hindu feature is noted by the fact that most goddesses appear in association with their consorts only. The goddess Sucellus had Nantosueita for consort; Brixia has Luxovius, a god of healing, and Damonia had Bravo, also a god of healing.

A three headed deity called "Mercury" by Julius Caesar was, in fact, Cernunnos, the great god of the Celts. His greatness is confirmed by the still extant 440 inscriptions and 350 sculptures. In Ireland, he was called Lug of the Long Hand. As three dedicatory texts demorlstrate, he was known as Lugus on the continent; he also had other variants such as Lugoues in Switzerland at Avenches; at Asma (Tarragona) he appears as Lugouibus, and this form is a dedication by the guild of cobblers; at Penalba de Villestar, he is known as Luguei. Because of these name variations, he is considered to have been a triple god. The god Lug was called Samildanach, though in the Irish mythology, his regular epithet happened to be Lug Lamfota or Lug of the Long-Hand. He seems to have been an international god because his cult is also found in the Caucasus as well as Sweden where his effigies are called, to this day, as "the Cobbler" confirming him as the patron saint of shoemakers. However, of greater interest is his Irish epithet: Lamfota i.e. Lug or God of the Long Hand because it connects him with Prthu-Pani (of the large hand), the Vedic Savitr, god of the sun. Though the name of this god has disappeared in the European mythology, he still lingers on in the Irish memory. In Ireland, his feast Lugnasad, was held on August 1, coinciding with the date of the harvest festival, and survives even today as "Garland Sunday."

Not only Lugus was considered a triple god, but Matres were also worshipped in triple form. There were many deities in Ireland who were three-headed; some or them for example, were the three gods of Danann; the three Brigits i.e. a goddess of poetry, a goddess of healing and a goddess of smithcraft; the three goddesses of battle: Morrigan, Badb and Nemain. This Hindu doctrine of Trimurti was extensively practised in Europe, and there are still thirty-two extant images of a three-headed god on the Continent.

Here the truth emerges clearly; the Rgveda and Sanskrit are products of the Punjab. There is nothing whatever to show their foreign origin; they are indigenous to the Punjab, it is not possible to ascribe these two facts to any other country. Because of the Rgveda, Sanskrit is rooted in India; it is as live and kicking there today as it ever was. The few words found in the European languages cannot prove that the Aryans moved from these lands to India. The truth is the other way round: European tongues still have these words as remnants of the Vedic settlers in these lands, who came in waves from the Punjab possibly five thousand years ago. These were the Aryans, and they were not uncouth barbarians. They were the ambassadors of civilisation. Their refinement of manners and maturity of thinking is fully supported by the Rgveda. They were the people who had invented iron which they used to civilise the natives of Europe.

Since the origin of the Aryans has always been a highly significant topic of hlstory, I may continue this discussion and refer to the famous Cauldron of Gundestrup, which is in the Nationa Museum at Copenhagen. It has the figure of the mysterious deity known as Cernunnos, "Lord of the animals." He sits in the familiar Indian posture of yoga, has the horns of a stag, holds the serpent and is surrounded by animals. This Cernunnos is none else but the Indian Lord Shiva known as Pasupati (Lord of animals) who is found in exactly the same circumstances on a seal from the Indus Valley (Pakistan) now in the Delhi Museum. He is also portrayed on the Paris "altar" in the yoga posture, having the horns of a stag. Not only in Ireland but also in Britain the Horned God is widely attested.

Antiquity of the seal depicting the Trimukha (three faced) or the god Siva goes back to 3,000 B.C. he wears a horned head-dress, a pectoral round the neck, has an erect penis and is surrounded by several types of animal such as tiger, buffalo and rhinoceros, with a deer under the seat. Siva is essentially an Indian god whose cult known as phallus- worship accompanied the people of the Punjab (Aryans) as they migrated to settle in the European lands and elsewhere. Since the home of Siva is India, the Aryans could not have been foreigners in India. The presence of the Siva figures, Hindu religion, its principles and practices confirm beyond doubt that the Aryans were Indians. The honour of colonising the West goes to India because she was the only country in the world which had the hardy, headstrong and haughty caste, Ksatriya, whose members fought to death as a matter of faith with professional honesty, honour and heroism.

So far, I have explained the Vedic principle of Trimurti (triad) with reference to the three-headed gods of the West, but now I may describe an Indian practice which prevailed in the Celtic lands of Europe for more than 1500 years. Until I read it myself, I used to believe, like most people, that the Aryans were foreign invaders in India. The practice I am referring to is of the Vedic origin, and is called asvamedha. The Welsh ecclesiastical writer Giraldus Cambrensis (died c. 1223) described this vedic ritual which was observed in the Irish kingdoms.

So important is the rite of Asvamedha that the Yujarveda devotes several books to its performance. How did Asvamedha reach Ireland and elsewhere? It was through the Indian emigrants, the Aryans. The concept of the god Agni clearly shows that fire, priesthood and sacrificing are the integral parts of Vedism. This is the reason thal sacrificial fire signified a Vedic household. It is the Punjabis who took it with them to make it an institution in Rome, Greece and Iran. Agni is Indian; therefore the sacrificial fire that he presides over is also of the Indian Origin.

Asvamedha is a Sanskrit word, meaning horse-sacrifice. It represents one of the most superb Vedic religious rites observed in the ancient India. A king performed it to celebrate his pararnountcy. This ritual required of the king to let a choice stallion roam freely for one year under the protection of a royal guard, who claimed all the lands marked by the horse's wanderings. Since it represented a show of power, if the horse wandered into another king's territory, he had to concede it or fight for its recovery. If the horse was not caught within the period of one year, it was brought back to its master's capital along with the rulers whose territories it had penetrated. It is then that the horse was sacrificed at a splendid public ceremony. The successful ceremony entitled the king to assume the title Cakravartin (the universal monarch). The purpose of the rite was not only to publicise the authority of the ruler but also to ensure the prosperity and fertility of the entire kingdom.

The Aryans were obviously people of the Indian origin; otherwise they could not have practised the Indian rites. In fact, there are many vedic peculiarities which are woven into the cultural texture of many European nations. Take the Romans for example:

They would not have observed the Indian principles and practices without having the Indian-origin. The Indians themselves have so thoroughly been reconciled with their smallness of political and cultural stature, emanating from the last 1000 years of degradation, that they find it hard to believe the stories of their ancestral suzerainty, splendour and superiority. The Celts established their hegemony on almost all countries of Europe and this condition continued for more than 500 years. Having colonised France (Gaul), they even reached the shores of the Mediterranean. This truth is confirmed by the contact that Hannibal, the Carthaginian commander made with them during the 3rd century B.C.

The Celts had conquered Rome but were eventually beaten and driven out by the Romans. But who were the Romans themselves? It is agreed that they came from the East, but what part of the East? They are either earlier emigrants from India or they are part of the Celtic migration, which came to be known as Roman over a period of time. They have inherited a good bit of the Vedic culture. See for yourself:

1. The Romans called people with the jaundice "Icterici" anc believed that this condition could be cured by looking at a parrot or starling. As a result, it was the bird and not the patient who died. This customary belief is clearly stated in the Rgveda:
"To parrots and starlings let us give away my yellowness .." (R.V.I: L. XII)

In those days, when the Punjab and Rome were worlds apart, such a maxim could have attained currency only if the Romans had taken their culture from the Punjat. This is not wishful thinking because their way of life is a reflection of the Vedic Culture. Note the following facts:
a. Chariot- racing was as great a hobby of the Romans as football or cricket are of some nations today. The Rgveda states this fact beautifully:
"O Indra, help our chariot on, yea, Thunderer, though it lag behind: Give this my car the foremost place.
Ho there! why sittest thou at ease? Make thou my chariot to be first: And bring the fame of victory near. Assist our car that seeks the prize; What can be easier for thee So make thou us victorious." (R.V. CVIII: LXIX - 4, 5, 6)

This fact is repeatedly stated in the Rgveda and vouches for the Ksatriya character of the Punjabis; the Romans had inherited it and displayed it with a skill and pride, which became exemplary for centuries.

b. Cambling was another feature of the Vedic life which the Romans had inherited.

The Rgveda frequently speaks of the dice, the gambling houses, and cheating habits of the gamesters. It shows the magnitude of this game. The Hindu custom of gambling at Diwali and casinos of the Western world are the echoes of the Vedic era:
"Sprung from tall trees on windy heights, these rollers transport me as they turn upon the table.
When the brown dice, thrown on the board, have rattled, like a fond girl I seek the place of meeting.
The gamester seeks the gambling house, and wonders, his body all afire, shall I be lucky." (R.V.X: XXXIV. 1, 5, 6)

Nuts of the Vibhidaka tree were used as dice in the Vedic Age. There were established gambling houses in the Punjab, cheating was a part of the game, and the gamblers had developed consummate skills:
"Yea, by superior play he wins advantage, When he, a gambler, piles his gains in season." (R.V.X: XLII. 9)

c. The Roman patriarchal family system, which I have already described, is of the Vedic origin.

d. There is clear evidence of Caste System in the Roman society as was among the Celtic people. It was based on gentes or groups composed of people having common ancestry. There was a priestly class, the military aristocracy (Patricians) and the commoners known as Plebians. Every gen was distinguished by a name and character, and stubbornly protected its identity and traditions in birth, death, marriage and ordinary course of life. The Ksatriya military ethos had become the main feature of the Roman society.

Besides, the Roman mythology was similar to that of the Indian. They respected hearth, the Vedic sacrificial fire, did not eat meat and also practised cremation. The Indian principle of Trimurti was actively observed by the Romans, who also followed their superstitions such as magic, miracle, amulets, charms, incantations, spells, evil-eye, witches and spirits. Again, they had arranged-marriages and the customs of dowry including many other marital peculiarities such as hypergamy. It is also known that most Roman women wore saris and the haircut of men resembled those of the Hindus i.e. having a tuft of hair from the middle of the closely cropped or shaven head.

Their method of crucifixion was also borrowed from India and this fact can be verified from the "CIay Cart," a Sanskrit play written c. 200 B.C.

There is plenty of further evidence which confirms the Indian presence in Europe. Since the evidence is Vedic, it proves beyond a shadow of doubt that the Aryans were Indians, who once dominated Europe. The facts that I am about to produce are the traces of the Indian culture in the West. Those who insist that the Aryans were non-lndians, have the obligation to show that:
1. The Vedas are of European origin.
2. Why the Vedas vanished in the West but remained intact in India.
3. And why Sanskrit died in the West but remained live and kicking in India.

The answer to all these questions is simple: when the dominance of a foreign conqueror comes to an end, its cultural effects including the language, die with it, leaving traces of its past existence here and there. But these conditions do not apply to the original homeland of the conqueror. The Arab occupation of Spain is a good example to this effect; the Arab culture has died in Spain but is still alive in Arabia, though its traces can still be seen in its former colony. Bearing this pattern in mind, one can see the following Indian vestiges in Europe as indicated by the Vedas:

a. The Atharvaveda, II: XII3-5 states:
So may the Universal Gods protect thee, whom we divest of raiment worn aforetime. So after thee, well-formed and growing stronger, be born a multitude of thriving brothers.

Ralph T. H. Griffith says: "This hymn has been translated by Ludwig." It describes the details that have been stated in the Kausika-Sutra, LIII, LIV, associated with the Roman youth's assumption of the toga virilis.

It was customary in Rome that free-born boys wore a purple-bordered toga (toga praetexta) until they reached puberty, when they started wearing the plain man's toga, called toga pura or toga virilis, after going through a ceremony referred to in the above-quoted hymn.

It is surely a Vedic custom which has been erroneously ascribed to the Etruscans; otherwise how could it have been mentioned in the Vedas?

b. The influence of the Vedic poetry and ritual is clearly visible on the European verse and way of life. I may explain this fact in relation to the greatest Roman poet Publius Vergilius Maro, popularly known as Virgil, who was born on October 15, 70 B.C. His collection of ten poems is called the Eclogues; in Eclogue, IV, 61, he states:
"Matri longa decem tulerunt fastidia menses."

It is a reference to "A ten month old child: born in the tenth lunar month" as stated in the rgveda, V.78. 8. 9. It is also described in the Athervavveda, 3. 23-1.2. This hymn is a charm to remove sterility and assure the birth of male children:
1. "From thee we banish and expel the cause of thy sterility.
2. As arrow to the quiver, so let a male embryo enter thee. Then from thy side be born a babe, a ten- month child, thy hero son .."

This hymn was a part of the ceremony which required the use of an arrow along with the recitation. This fact has been stated in the Kausika-Sutra.

3. The dread of evil-eye is associated with many lands. It is called "Chashm-i-Bad" in Iran. In all European countries, under the Vedic influence, scare of the evil- eye was felt. Italy ought to be mentioned in this respect where a person known as a jettatore or jettatrice (caster of the evil-eye) aroused so much fear and revulsion that he or she invited ostracism irrespective of social stature.

The source of evil-eye lies in India because it is a part of the Atharvaveda:
"Upon the cursor fall his curse! Dwell we with him whose heart is pure! We split the cruel villain's ribs whose evil eye bewitches us." (A.V. 2: 7-5)

The presence of this custom in Italy and other European countries, confirms the Indian settlement in the said lands.

4. I have already described the Vedic belief prevalent among the Romars that people with the jaundice called "Iterici," could cure this disease (yellowness) by looking at the icterus i.e. a member of the starling family. This fact is described both in the Rgveda and Atharvaveda:
'To parrots and to starlings we transfer thy sickly yellowness: Now in the yellow-coloured birds we lay this yellowness of thine." (A.V.I: 22-4)

5. "She mounted up, she came unto the fathers. The Fathers called to her, O Food, come hither. This food the Fethers make their lives' sustainer.." (A.V. 8: X - 23)

This is the source of the international belief that the departed ones are sustained by the oblations presented to them by their relations. Even the Muslims in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh observe this doctrine. It was equally observed in the Greek and Roman world; they visited the tombs of their relatives during certain periods to offer them sacrifices, foods and gifts. This custom was also noticed in the North of England.

6. The Germans claim to be the pure Aryans. They retained a vedic tradition:
"Let all of these in concert call thee hither. Live they tenth decade here, a strong kind ruler." (A.V. 3: 4-7)

The vedic seers believed that life was meant to be a century long. Therefore, they prayed for a longevity of "100 autumns, " and divided it into ten decades. The Grmans, similarly, divided life into ten decades from childhood up to "Grace with God." (See Ralph T. H. Griffith - Hymns of A.V. p. 70)

7. As already stated, Punjabis i e. the Aryans in Europe elected their kings. This prinoiple is described in A.V. 3-4.2:
"The Tribesmen shall elect thee for the kingship, these five celestial regions shall elect thee."

8. The Bull, what time thou followedst the way of Indra summoned thee: Thence the fiend-slayer, angered, took thy water and milk away .." (A.V. 10 - 10.10)

"The Bull" is an allusion to Vritra, the mighty demon, who was the obstructor of rain. It was the god, Indra who slew him in a battle. This Vedic event became a part of the Western mythology. It refers to, the dragon- fights of the Greek Apollo and the Scandinavian Sigmund. This idea is also incorporated in the Bible. (See Job 7.12 and 26.12)

9. "This amulet, this Varana, will guard thee from sneeze, and from the bird's ill-omened message." (A.V X: 111-VI)

When someone sneezes, it is customary to say: "Bless you." This benediction is of the Vedic origin. Wherever, the Aryans went, they took it with them. Erroneously, it is attributed to St. Gregory; its roots go back to the vedas. Aristotle has mentioned a similar custom among the Greeks. Cisero of Rome says "Sternutamenta erunt observanda." (de Div. 2.40) (Ralph T.H.Griffith - Hymns of R.V. page 11 )

The superstition associated with "The Bird's ill-omened message" is also of the Indian essence. Here the allusion is to the raven; in the Rgveda, owl and dove have also been help as ominous birds.

10. "Even for him hath Tvashtar forged the thunder (bolt) most deftly wrought. celestial, for the battle." (A.V. 20-35: 6)

The phrase Indra's thunderbolt is more frequently described in the Rgveda. It is this god's weapon to fight his enemies. Indra, the Chief Indian god became the model of foreign god's weaponery. It shows that once the Indian culture was the dominant way of life in the known world; Zeus of Greece, Jupiter of Rome, Ramman, the Assyrian god of the air - all had thunderbolt as their main weapon.

Trident, another Indian weaporl was the weapon of Bel. Merodrach of Mesopotamia, who killed the dragon Tiamat.
11. "This we address to all the gods, faithful maintainers of the Right, With their consorts by their side .." (A.V. Il: 6-19)

That gods have human characteristics, is essentailly a vedic idea. As humans had wives and husbands, so did the gods, and passessed similar temperaments and habits.

12. The Rgveda declares that the world was created from the sacrifice of a person calledt "Purusha." This is what appears in the creation-myth of the world-giant, Ymir in Old Northern poetry. Obviously, there was a time when the Vedic beliefs were rife in Europe.

13. "Not over-crowded by the Crowd of Manu's sons, she who hath many heights and floods and level plains." (A.V. 10: 1-2)

Here Manu's sons means, human beings, the children of Manu, the primeval man. The old German equivalent of Sanskrit Manu is Mannus. In fact, the English word: "man" itself is its variation. It clearly shows that there was a time when European lands were inhabited by the Vedic people - and the Vedas are the Holy Books of India.

14. The Rgveda (Valakhilya, 3.2.) describes a strange custom in connection with Praskanava. It implies that people cast out their extremely old relatives to die of hunger. A.V. 18: 2 34 states this customs as follows:
"Bring them the Fathers one and all Agni, to eat the sacrifice, The buried, and the cast away, those burnt with fire, and those expose."

Since it is the god Agni who is being addressed in this hymn, this custom is of the Vedic origin but according to Strabo, it was sanctioned by the old German law, and also practised by the Iranians, Bactrians and Massagetae (see Ralph T. H. Griffith's Hymns of the Atharvaveda p. 191). This custom must have travelled from the Punjab to these lands, otherwise they could not have observed it.

15. Max Muller has establisehd the Biblical debt to the Vedas by pointing out the following truth:
"Thou for Turviti heldest still the flowing floods, the river-stream for Yayya, easily to pass." (Rg 11: 13.12)

"And thou for the sake o- Vayya, for Turviti, didst stay the greal stream, flowing, all sustaining." (Rg. IV: 19.6)

Turviti is a hero liked by the Chief Vedic God, Indra, who rescues him by tampering with the flow of water so that he can pass the stream easily. An event of similar nature has been recorded in the Bible, Psalm 78: 13 ( Maschil of Asaph ): This Psalm narrates the conditions when the Jews escape Egypt and are fallowed by the Pharaoh. As they reach the Red Sea, they realise that they have the choice to drown themselves in the water or suffer slaughter at the hand of the Egyptian soldiers. There the miracle took place "at the behest of the Lord:"

" ... Moses stretched out his hand over the sea; and the Lord caused the sea to go back by a strong east wind all that night, and made the sea dry land, and waters were divided." ( Exodus 14: 21 )

One can see, the Jewish God performed the same miracle to save the Jews as the Chief God Indra had done to help Turivti centuries earlier. Since the Vedas belong to India, it clearly shows that the Vedic legends would not have spread in the east and the west unless the Aryans were the natives of the Punjab.

16. It was the Vedic people of India, who invented the tradition of riddle i.e. describing fact in an obscure way and asking the hearer to tell what it really is. The Rgveda in 10: 117: 8, says:
"He with one foot hath far outrun the biped and the two-footed catches the three footed ...."

Here by one- footed is meant Ekapad, the sun who is taken over by man (the Biped) who may be surpassed by an old three-footed person i.e., walking with the help of a staff. This Rgvedic riddle appears in Greece as Sphinx and Oedipus.

This Vedic tradition was taken up by the Biblical sages, as it is clear in Judges 14: 12. Samson says:
"I will not put forth a riddle unto you: if ye can certainly declare it me within the seven days of the feast, and find it out, then I will give you thirty sheets and thirty change of garments."

17. "Whatever fault or error was in marriage or bridal pomp. The woe we wipe away upon the cloak the interceder wears, We, having laid the stain and fault upon the interceder's cloak, Are pure and meet for sacrifice .." (A.V. 14: 2 - 66, 67)

These verses refer to the old custom where marriages were arranged by the interceder, who was a match-maker. He recommended the bride-seeker to her parents and guaranteed the good conduct of the would-be bridegroom. This custom was prevalent in the Isle of Man, where the interceder was called "Dooiney-Mollr." It literally means, the "man- praiser" because the interceder praised his client lavishly to the future bride's parents for persuading them to agree to the match.

This custom was also found in Germany and Italy. People of the Indian sub-continent still practise it.

By now, I think that I have produced sufficient evidence to show that the Aryans originated from the Punjab. Of course, they do not have white skins and blue eyes. This is not a genetic but a climatic effect. The European gypsies also come from the Punjab; some 90% of them have developed white skins and blue eyes since they have been in Europe. In essence, this discussion is dedicated to showing that it is the Vedas which acted as the ambassador of civilisation through the adventurous spirit of the Ksatriya sons, though their progency has come to be called "Dhotiwalas'' because of their addiction to Ahimsa, a sacred name for the profanity known as cowardice.

The Indians have no reason to be ashamed of their past, which is proud, pleasing and pompous; it is ignorance which has become the source of their self-humiliation. However, it is something that the Hindus still have a sense of belonging to India, but on the contrary, those who have embraced Islam, cannot see anything good in their own land of birth; this is the result of 1000 years of psychological molestation, which they have suffered at the hands of the foreign predators. To hide their inferiority complex, they call themselves "Muslims only," and look for everything good in the sands of Arabia.

I dare them refute my findings, which establish the greatness, grandeur and glory of the Indian sub-continent as the fountain of human civilisation.

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