प्रथमः समाधिपादः॥ PAADA 1
०१. अथ योगानुशासनम् ।
1. ATHA YOGA ANUSHAASHAANAM
ATHA - now; herewith of YOGA; ANUSHAASANAM - expounding; exposition (teaching)
Herewith an exposition of the principle and practice of Yoga.
2. YOGASH CHITTA VRITTI NIRODHAH
YOGASH (the essential technique (of ) Yoga CHITTA - of mind; VRITTI - of modifications NIRODHAH - inhibition; suppression; stoppage; restraint.
This Yoga is achieved by the control and cessation of the modifications of the mind.
तदा द्रष्टुः स्वरूपेऽवस्थानम्
3. TADAA DRASTUH SVAROOPE AVASTHAANAM
TADAA - then; DRASTUH - of seer; SVAROOPE - in his 'own form' or essential and fundamental nature AVASTHAANAM - establishment.
When this is accomplished the seer knows himself as he is truly is, and stands in his own nature.
4. VRITTI SAAROOPYAM ITARATRAVRITTI- with modifications (of the mind): SAAROOPYAM - identification; assimilation; ITARATRA - else where, in other states.
Unless the Inner Self is aware of His own nature, he identifies Himself with the modifications of the mind.
वृत्तयः पञ्चतय्यः क्लिष्टा अक्लिष्टाः
5. VRITTAYAH-PANCHATAYYAH KLISHTAA AKLISHTAAHVRITTAYAH- modes, modifications, or functioning of the mind; PANCHATAYYAH- fivefold; of five kinds; KLISHTAA-painful AKLISHTAAH-(and) not painful.
These modifications are five, painful and not painful.
6. PRAMAANA VIPARYAYA VIKALPA NIDRAA SMRITAYAHPRAMAANA-right knowledge; VIPARYAYA-wrong knowledge; VIKALPA-fancy; imagination; NIDRAA-sleep; SMRITAYAH-(and) memory.
They are as follows:- 1) Direct proof 2) false knowledge 3) imagination 4) sleep 5) memory.
7. PRATYAKSHAAN UMAANAA GAMAAH PRAMAANAANIPRATYAKSHAAN-direct cognition; sense-evidence; UMAANAA -inference; GAMAAH- (and) testimony; revelation; PRAMAANAANI-tested and attested facts.
Direct proof of three kinds:- (a) Direct perception (b) Inference (c) Verbal testimony.
विपर्ययो मिथ्याज्ञानम् अतद्रूपप्रतिष्ठम्
8. VIPARYAYO MITHYAA JYAANAM ATADROOPA PRATISHTHAM VIPARYAYO - wrong knowledge; erroneous impression; mistake; delusion; MITHYAA - false; illusory JYAANAM - knowledge; conception; ATAD (of) its own; ROOPA- (real) form; PRATISHTHAM - possessing; occupying; based.
False knowledge is delusion i.e. the object does not appear its true form.
शब्दज्ञानानुपाती वस्तुशून्यो विकल्पः
9. SHABDA JYAANAAN UPAATEE VASTU SHOONYO VIKALPAHSHABDA-word; JYAANA - cognizance; ANUPAATEE - following upon; VASTUSHOONYO - empty of substance; devoid of objectivity; VIKALPAH - fancy.
Imagination is a mere apperception following verbal knowledge devoid of any substantial reality.
10. ABHAAVA PRATYA YAALAMBANAA VRITTI NIDRAAABHAAVA - absence; nothingness; PRATYA - content of mind; YAALAMBANAA- support; object; VRITTI- modification; NIDRAA.- sleep.
Sleep is a modification of mind with feeling of nothingness.
११. अनुभूतविषयासंप्रमोषः स्मृतिः
11. ANUBHOOTA VISHAYAA SAMPRAMOSHAH SMRITIH ANUBHOOTA- (of) experienced; VISHAYAA- object; subject-matter SAMPRAMOSHAH- (non-theft); not letting go or allowing to escape; SMRITIH - memory.
Memory is the recollection of past experiences.
१२. अभ्यासवैराग्याभ्यां तन्निरोधः
12. ABHYAASA VAIRAAGYAABHYAAM TAN NIRODHAHABHYAASA- (by) persistent practice; VAIRAAGYAABHYAAM - (and) non-attachment or absence of desire or detachment; TANNIRODHAH- control or suppression or inhibition of that (Chitta-vrittis)
These modifications can be controlled by means of (a) practice and (b) renunciation.
13. TATRA STHITOU YATNO ABHAYAASAHTATRA-of those (tow); STHITOU- for being firmly established or fixed; YATNO - effort; endeavor; ABHYAASAH.- practice.
Practice is a continuous effort at self-realization.
१४. स तु
दीर्घकालनैरन्तर्यसत्कारासेवितो दृढभूमिः ।
14. SATU DEERGHA KAALA NAIRANTARYA SATKAARAASE VITO DRIDHA BHOOMIHSA- that; TU - indeed; DEERGHA- (for) long; KAALA - time; NAIRANTARYA- (with) uninterrupted continuance (incessantly); SATKAAR - (and) reverent devotion; earnestness; AASE VITO - pursued; followed; continued; DRIDHA- firm; BHOOMIH - ground.
That practice becomes firmly grounded when it is incessant, extending over a long period, and done
with faith and sincerity.
15. DRISHTA ANUSRAVIKA VISHAYA VITRISHNASYA VASHIKAARA-SAMYYAANA VAIRAAGYAM DRISHTA-(for) seen (here in this world; visible; physical; ANUSRAVIKA-(and) heard; promised in the scriptures; revealed; VISHAYA- objects; VITRISHNASYA- of him who has ceased to thirst; VASHIKAARA- SAMJYAANA- consciousness of perfect mastery (of desires); VAIRAAGYAM- non-attachment; detachment.
The consciousness of perfect mastery (of desires) in the case of one who has ceased to crave for objects, seen or unseen, is Viaraagya.
16. TAT PARAM PURUSHA KHYAATER GUNAVAITRISHNYAM TAT-that; PARAM-highest; ultimate; PURUSHA KHYAATER- by or from awareness of the Purusha or the Self; GUNAVAITRISHNYAM- freedom from the least desire for the Gunas.
Renunciation known as the Par-vairagya is non-attachment to the very attributes of worldly and heavenly objects until the realization of the self.
वितर्कविचारानन्दास्मितारूपानुगमात् संप्रज्ञातः ।
17. VITARKA VICHAARA ANANDAA ASMITTAA ANUGAMAAT SAMPRAJYAATAH
VITARKA- of reasoning; argumentation; VICHAARA - deliberation; reflection; ANANDAA- bliss; joy; ASMITTAA - (and; or) I- am-ness; sense of individuality; sense of pure being; ANUGAMAAT- by accompaniment; with association; SAMPRAJYAATAH- Samaadhi with Prajyana or consciousness.
Through incessant practice to realize the aim and through renunciation known as the 'Vasheekar' one attains to Samprajyaat state of concentration which is followed by:
1. The power of acute reasoning.
2. The power of acute thinking.
3. Perennial happiness and
१८. विरामप्रत्ययाभ्यासपूर्वः संस्कारशेषोऽन्यः
18. VIRAAMA PRAYAYA ABHYAASA POORVAH SANSKAAR SHESHO ANYAH VIRAAMA- cessation; dropping; PRATYAYA- content of the mind (the 'seed') of samprajynata samaadhi) ABHYAASA - practice; POORVAH- proceeded by; SANSKAAR - impressions; SHESHO - remnant; ANYAH- the other.
Through incessant practice to realize the aim and through renunciation known as the Par Vairajya one attains to the Asamprajyaat state of concentration which is followed by a permanent peace of mind with impressions of self-realization (impressions known as Sanskaars).
१९. भवप्रत्ययो विदेहप्रकृतिलयानाम्
19. BHAVA PRATYAYO VIDEHA PRAKRITI-LAYAANAAMBHAVA - (by) birth; objective existence; PRATYAYO - caused; VIDEHA - the 'bodiless'; PAKRITI- LAYAANAAM - of the 'merged-in-Prakriti'; of the absorbed in Prakriti.
They who have realized the true nature of matter and are unattached to their bodily enjoyments attain the Bhav Pratyaay state of concentration, meaning thereby that they in their next birth automatically get Samadhi without any effort or renunciation on their part.
२०. श्रद्धावीर्यस्मृतिसमाधिप्रज्ञापूर्वक इतरेषाम्
20. STRADDHA VEERYA SMRITI SAMAADHI PRAJYAAN POORVAK ITARESHAAMSTRADDHAA -faith; VEERYA - indomitable energy or will; SMRITI -memory; SAMAADHIPRAJYAAN (and) intelligence or 'high knowledge' or keen intellect essential for Samaadhi; POORVAK - preceeded by; ITARESHAAM- for others; of others.
But those who have not undergone the above practices will require the following:- Faith, energy, memory, "recollectedness" and intelligence.
21. TEEVRA SAMVEGAANAAM AASANAHTEEVRA-SAMVEGAANAAM- of those whose wish is intensely strong; AASANNAH - 'sitting near', near at hand.
It (Samaadhi) is nearest to those whose desire is intensely strong
22. MRIDU MADHYA ADHIMAATRATVAAT TATO AAPI VISHESHAHMRIDU- (on account of being) mild; soft; MADHYA- medium; moderate; ADHIMAATRATVAAT- (and) intense or powerful; TATO- from it; after that; AAPI - also; even; VISHESHAH - gradation; differentiation; distinction.
A further differentiation (arises) by reason of the mild, medium and intense (nature of means employed).
२३. ईश्वरप्रणिधानाद् वा
23.ISHWARA PRANIDHAANA ANAADRAAISHWARA- God; PRANIDHAANAADRAA - by 'placing oneself' in (God); by devotional dedication to; by self-surrender or resignation to (God); VA- or.
Or by self-surrender to God.
क्लेशकर्मविपाकाशयैरपरामृष्टः पुरुषविशेष ईश्वरः
24. KLESHA KARMA VIPAAKA ASHAYAIR APARAMRISHTAH PURUSHA VISHESHA ESHWARAH. KLESHA- (by) afflictions; misery; cause of misery; KARMA - actions; activities; VIPAAKAA - maturation or fruition; SHAYAIR -(and) seed-germs or impressions of desires wherein desires sleep; APARAAMRISHTAH - untouched; PURUSHA - Spirit; and individual unit or centre of Divine Consciousness; VISHESHA - special; particular; ESHWAR - Ruler or Presiding Deity of a Brahmaanda or Solar system.
Ishvara is a particular Purusha who is untouched by the afflictions of life, actions and the results and impressions produced by these actions.
तत्र निरतिशयं सर्वज्ञ्त्वबीजम्
25. TATRA NIRATISHAYAM SARVAJYANA BEEJAMTATRA- in Him; NIRATISHAYAM - the highest; unsurpassed; SARVAJYNA - (of) the Omniscient; BEEJAM - the seed; the principle.
In him is the highest limit of Omniscience.
२६. स पूर्वेषाम् अपि गुरुः
26. SA POORVESHAAM API GURUH KAALENA ANAVACHCHHEDAATSA - He; POORVESHAAM - of the ancients; of those who came before or first; API - even; GURUH -teacher; KAALENA - by time; ANAVACHCHHEDAAT - on account 0f not being limited or conditioned.
Being unconditioned by time He is Teacher even of the Ancients.
२७. तस्य वाचकः प्रणवः
27. TASYAVAACHAKAH PRANAVAHTASYA - His (of Ishwara); VAACHAKAH - designator; indicator; PRANAVAH- 'Om' pronounced - A-U-M as a humming sound.
His designator is 'Om'.
28. TAJJAPAS TADARTHA BHAAVAMTAJJAPAS - its constant repetition; TAD-ARTHA - (of) its meaning; BHAAVANAM - dwelling upon in mind; realizing; meditation.
Its constant repetition and meditation on its meaning.
२९. ततः प्रत्यक्चेतनाधिगमोऽप्यन्तरायाभावश्च
29. TATAH PRATYAK CHETANA ADHIGAMO APYA ANTARYAAYA ABHAAVASHCHATATAH= From it (this practice); PRAYAK- (of) in-turned; in the opposite direction; CHETANA - consciousness; ADHIGAMO - attainment; APYA - also; ANTARAAYA - (of) hindrances; obstacles; ABHAAVASH - absence; disappearance; CHA - and.
From it (result) the disappearance of obstacles and turning inward of consciousness.
स्त्यान संशय प्रमादालस्याविरति
30. VYAADHI STYAANA SAMSHAYA PRAMAAD AALASYA AVIRATI BHRAANTI DARSHANA ALABDHA BHOOMIKATVA ANAVASTHI TATVAANI CHITTA VIKSHEPAAS TE ANTARAAYAAH
VYAADHI - disease; STYAANA - dullness; languor; drooping state; SAMSHAYA - doubt; PRAMAAD - carelessness; AALASYA - laziness; AVIRATI - hankering after objects; BHRAANTI-DARSHAN - delusion; erroneous view; ALABDHABHOOMIKATVA - non-achievement of a stage; inability to find a footing; ANAVASTHI TATVAANI - (and) unsteadiness; instability; CHITTA - (of) mind; VIKSHEPAAS - distractions (causes of distraction); TE - they (are); ANTARAAYAAH - obstacles; hindrances.
Diseases, languor, doubt, carelessness, laziness, worldly-mindedness, delusion, non-achievement of a stage, instability, these (nine) cause the distraction of the mind and they are the obstacles.
31. DUKHA DAURMANASYAA ANGAMEJAYATVA SWAASA PRASHWAASAA VIKSHEPA SAHABHUVAHDUHKHA - pain; DAURMANASYAA - despair,, depression , etc., caused by mental sickness; ANGAMEJAYATVA - shaking of the body; lack of control over the body; nervousness; 'SVAASA-PRASHVAASAA - (and) inspiration and expiration; hard breathing; VIKHSEPA - distraction; SAHABHUVAH - accompanying (symptoms).
(Mental) pain, despair, nervousness and hard breathing are the symptoms of a distracted condition of mind.
32. TAT PRATISHEDHAARTAM EKA TATTWA ABHYAASAHTAT - that (there); PRATISHEDHAARTHAM - for removal; for checking; AKA - (of) one; TATTVA - principle; truth; ABHYAASAH - practice; intense application.
For removing these obstacles there (should be) constant practice of one truth or principle.
३३. मैत्रीकरुणामुदितोपेक्षणां सुखदुःखपुण्यापुण्यविषयाणां भावनातश्चित्तप्रसादनम्
33. MAITRI KARUNAA MUDIT OPEKSHAANAAM SUKHA DUKHA APUNYA VISHAYAANAAM
BHAAVANATASH CHITTA PRASAADANAMMAITRI - friendliness; KARUNAA - compassion; MUDITAA - (and) gladness; UPEKSHAANAA - indifference; SUKHA - joy; DUKHA - sorrow; misery; PUNYA; without-vice APUNYA:(and) vice; VISHAYAANAAM - (having for their) objects; BHAAVANAATASH - by cultivating attitudes (towards); by dwelling in mind (upon); CHITTA - (of) mind; PRASAADANAM - clarification; purification.
The mind becomes clarified by cultivating attitudes of friendliness, compassion, gladness and indifference respectively towards happiness, misery, virtue and vice.
प्रच्छर्दनविधारणाभ्यां वा प्राणस्य ।
34. PRACHCHHARDANA VIDHAARANA ABHYAAM WAA PRAANASYAPRACHCHHARDANA (by) ejection; expiration; VIDHAARANAABHYAAM (and) retention; holding; VAA - or; PRAANASYA - of breath.
Or by the expiration and retention of breath.
विषयवती वा प्रवृत्तिरुत्पन्ना
35. VISHAYAWATI WAA PRAVITTIR UTTPANNAA MANASAH STHITI NIBANDHANNEE
VISHAYAVATI - sensuous; VAA - or; PRAVRITTIR - functioning; occupation; pursuit; UTTPANNAA - arisen; born; MANASAH- of the mind; STHITI - steadiness; NIBANDHANNEE - (of); helpful establishing.
Coming into activity of (higher) senses also becomes helpful in establishing steadiness of the mind.
३६. विशोका वा ज्योतिष्मती
36. VISHOKAA WAA VYOTISHMATEEVISHOKAA - sorrowless; serene; VAA - or; also; VYOTISHMATEE - luminous (states experienced within).
Also (through) serene or luminous (states experienced within).
३७. वीतरागविषयं वा चित्तम् ।
37. VEETARAAGA VISHAYAM CHITTAM VEETARAAGA - a human being who has transcended human passions or attachment; VISHAYAM - (having for its) object; VAA - or; also; CHIITTAM - the mind.
Also the mind fixed on those who are free from attachment (acquires steadiness).
३८. स्वप्ननिद्राज्ञानालम्बनं वा
38. SWAPNA NIDRAA JYAANA ALAMBHANAM SVPNA - dream state; NIDRAA - state of dreamless sleep; JYAANA - (and) knowledge; ALAMBANAM - (having for its) support; that on which a thing rests or depends; VAA - also.
Also (the mind) depending upon the knowledge derived from dreams or dreamless sleep (will acquire steadiness).
३९. यथाभिमतध्यानाद् वा
39. YATHAABHIMATA CHYAANAAD WAAYATHAABHIMATA - desired/ agreeable; CHYAANAAD - by meditation; WAA - or.
Or by meditation as desired.
४०. परमाणु परममहत्त्वान्तोऽस्य वशीकारः
40. PARAMAANU PARAMA MAHATTVA ANTO ASYAVASHEEKAARAH
PARAMA - ultimate; smallest; ANU - atom; PARAMA - (and) ultimate; greatest; MAHATTVA - largeness; infinity; ANTO - ending (in); extending; (up to); ASYA - his (of the yogi); VASHEEKAARAH - mastery.
His mastery extends form the finest atom to the greatest infinity.
४१. क्षीणवृत्तेरभिजातस्येव मणेर्ग्रहीतृग्रहणग्राह्येषु तत्स्थतदञ्जनतासमापत्तिः
41. KSHINAVRITTER ABHIJAATASY EVA MANER GRAHEETRI GRAHANAA GRAAHYESHU TATSTHA TADANJANATAA SAMAAPATTIHKSHINAVRITTER - of him in whose case the modifications of the mind have been almost annihilated; ABHIJAATASY - of transparent; well-polished; EVA - like; MANER - of the jewel or crystal; GRAHEETRI - (in) cognizer; subject; GRAHANAA - cognition; the relation between the subject and object; GRAAHYESHU - (and) cognized objects; TATSTHA - on which it rests; TADANJANATAA - the taking of the form or color of that; SAMAAPATTIH - consummation; outcome; fusion.
In the case of one whose Chitta-Vrittis have been annihilated, fusion or entire absorption in one another of the cognizer, cognition and cognized is brought about as in the case of a transparent jewel (resting on a colored surface).
४२. तत्र शब्दार्थज्ञानविकल्पैः
42. TATRA SHABDA ARTHA JYAAN VIKALPAIH SAMKEERNAA SAVITARKAA TATRA - there; is it; SHABDA - word; ARTHA - real meaning, true knowledge of the object which the Yogi wants; JYAAN - ordinary knowledge base on sense perceptions and reasoning; VIKALPAIH - (and) alteration between different alternatives owing to doubt or uncertainty; SAMKEERNAA - mixed up; confused; unresolved; involved; SAVITARKAA - a state of Samaadhi characterized by Vitarka (see 1-17 and 11-19).
Savitarka Samaadhi is that in which knowledge based only on words, real knowledge and ordinary knowledge based on sense perception or reasoning are present in a mixed state and the mind alternates between them.
स्मृतिपरिशुद्धौ स्वरूपशून्येवार्थमात्रनिर्भासा निर्वितर्का
43. SMRITI PARISHUDDHAU SWAROOP SHOONYE EWA ARTHA MATRA NIRBHAASAA NIRVITARKAA SMRITI - (of) memory; PARISHUDDHAU- on clarification - SWAROOP - own form; essential nature; self -awareness; SHOONYE - devoid (of); EVA - as if; ARTHA - object; real meaning; true knowledge of the object; MATRA- only; NIRBHAASAA - presenting; shining (with); appearing (as); NIRVITARKAA - a state of Samaadhi characterized by absence of Vitarka.
On the clarification of memory, when the mind loses its essential (subjectivity), as it were, and the real knowledge of the object alone shines (through the mind) Nirvitarkaa Samaadhi is attained.
४४. एतयैव सविचारा निर्विचारा च
44. ETAYAI WA SAVICHAARAA NIRVICHAARAA CHA SOOKSHMAVISHAYAA VYAAKHYAATAAETAYAI - by this; WA- alone; itself; SAVICHAARAA - Samaadhi involving Vichaara or reflection (see (1-17 and 11-19);NIRVICHAARAA - Samaadhi not involving Vichaara; CHA - and; SOOKSHMAVISHAYAA - Samaadhi involving (still more) subtle 'objects'; VYAAKHYAATAA - described or explained.
By this ( what has been said in the two previous Sutras) Samadhis or Savichaara, Nirvichaara andsubtler stages (1-17) have also been explained.
45. SOOKSMAVISHAYATWAM CHA ALINGA PARYAVASAANAMSOOKSMAVISHAYATWAM - the state of Samaadhi concerned with subtle objects; CHA - and; ALINGA - stage of the Gunas (11-19); PARYAVASAANAM - extending (up to).
The province of Sammaadhi concerned with subtle objects extends up to the Alinga stage of the Gunas.
४६. ता एव सबीजः
46. TA EWA SABEEJAH SAMAADHITA - those; EVA - only; SABEEJAH - with 'seed'; having and object; objective; SAMAADHI - samaadhi.
They (stages corresponding to subtle objects) constitute only Samaadhi with 'seed'.
47. NIRVICHAARA WAISHAARADYE ADHYAATMA PRASAADAHICHAARA - Samaadhi (of) the Nirvichaara stage: WAISHAARADYE - on the refinement; on attaining the utmost purity; ADHYAATMA - spiritual; PRASAADAH - lucidity; clarity.
On attaining the utmost purity of the Nirvichaara stage (of Samaadhi) ther is the dawning of the spiritual light.
४८. र्तंभरा तत्र प्रज्ञा
48. RITAMBHARAA TATRA PRAJYNA RITAMBHARAA - Truth ; right-bearing; TATRA - there; PRAJYNA - higher statee of consciouness (experienced in Samaadhi).
There, the consciousness is Truth – and Right – bearing.
49. SRUTA ANUMAANA PRAJYNAABHYAAM ANYAVISHAYAA VISHESHAARTHATVAATSRUTA - heard; ANUMAANA - (based on) inference; PRAJYANAABHYAM - from (these) two (levels of) higher consciousness; ANYAVISHAYAA - having another object of content; VISHESHAARTHATVAAT - because of having a particular object.
The knowledge based on inference or testimony is different from direct knowledge obtained in the higher states of consciousness (1-48) because it is confined to a particular object (or aspect).
तस्यापि निरोधे सर्वनिरोधान्
50. TAJJAH SAMSKAARO ANYA SAMSKAAR PRATIBANDHEETAJJAH - born of it; SAMSKAARO - impression; ANYA - (of) other; SAMSKAAR - impressions; PRATIBANDHEE - preventer; that which stands in the way of.
The impression produced by it (Sabeeja Samaadhi) stands in the way of other impressions.
५१. इति पतञ्जलि विरचिते योगसूत्रे प्रथमः समाधिपादः
51. TASYA API NIRODHE SARVA NIRODHAAN NIRBEEJAH SAMAADHIHTASYA - of that; API - also; NIRODHE - on suppression; inhibition; SARVA - (of) all; NIRODHAAN - by suppression; NIRBEEJAH - 'Seedless'; subjective; SAMAADHIH - Samaadi/self-realization (is attained).
On suppression of even that owning to suppression of all (modifications of the mind) 'Seedless' Samaadhi (is attained). <<<<<<<<< Yoga ----- Saadhana Paada 2>>>>>>>>>
"The quality that predominates in physical body renders the embodied soul eminently distinguished for that quality. Manu, XII: 8,9,25
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