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Part II

Part IV
Part V

An introduction to the Vedas
The Light of Truth
Dayanand's Life Teachings

Questions frequently asked
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Introduction to theVedas
Part 3

Yoga
Sandhya (Prayer)
Homa (Agnihotra)
    To understand the true meaning of this book you must apply the
    The four subsidiary means of reasoning:

  1. Listening or reading most attentively with a calm mind to the lectures of a learned man, and more so if the subjects are a divine Science, because it is the most abstruse and the subtlest of all the sciences.
  2. Thinking over what one has heard or read in retirement, and in removing doubts if there be any by questioning the speaker. Questions may sometimes be asked even in the middle of a discourse if the speaker and the audience think proper.
  3. Rationalizing is the next step. When all doubts are cleared after hearing or reading a discourse and thinking over it, let the enquirer enter into the superior condition and see for himself by the help of yoga (self-realization through meditation) whether it is the same as he had heard and reasoned out or not.
  4. The result is the correct knowledge of the nature, properties and characteristics of the desired object.


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    Cosmogony
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    The purport of the following mantras is as given below:-

    All this world that we see was duly created by God. He it is who preserves it and having disintegrated it at the time of the dissolution makes it disappear. He goes on repeating this again and again for ever.

    Before the creation, i.e., when this effect - the world - had not been made, even the void (Akasha-space) was not; because, there were no actions which could take place in it, nor was at that time the causal matter of the world named sat, consisting of prakriti - unmanifested matter; nor were there the atoms; nor was there the second akasha - ether, which fills the universe (virat). There was at that time only the subltest, and the ultimate (material cause of all this world) called God's Samarthya, i.e., material to work with. As the slight moisture that appears as fog on a rainless morning is neither sufficient to throw a veil over the earth nor to make the rivers flow, nor is it deep because it is so insignificant, even so the entire universe which ha been made by God with His Samarthya cannot be said to be deep in comparison universe is finite while God is infinite. Nothing can, therefore, cover Him.

    The five verses, Na mrityurasit etc.' are easy to understand. We shall explain them in the commentary.

    This visible and multifold universe was made of God and He alone sustains and dissolves it and does not make it [again for a period. Tr.] He is Lord of all this. The entire creation exists in Him. He pervades everywhere like space and in His Samarthya - the final material cause - it is absorbed at the time of dissolution. O friend Jiva! He who knows Him attains to the highest bliss; but, he who does not know Him, the highest object of desire of all men, all existence, all consciousness, all bliss and eternal, does not verily obtain the

  2. Page 171
    highest beatitude. Rigveda. VIII. 7-17, 1-7.The author has left 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6th verses unexplained for the reason that to one acquainted with Sanskrit they are easy of comprehension. We have thought it advisable to subjoin their translation.
  3. Page 172
    Before the creation of the world, there was Hiranyagarbha (holder of all lights in its womb). He was one Lord without a second of the created world. Having made the entire cosmos, from the earth up to the shining firmament, He is upholding it. We offer praise unto His blissful and shinning majesty .RigVeda VIII, 7-3.1.

    !. God is the purusha with thousand (i.e.< innumerable) heads, eyes and feet because in Him, the all-pervading Supreme Being, there exist innumerable heads, eyes and feet of living beings like us, i.e., human beings and others. The Supreme Lord fills the earth which here stands for its denizens also) and the prakriti, i.e., the entire universe, from all sides,

  4. Page 173


    II. Death was not then, nor was there aught immortal; no sign was there to mark off the night from day. That One, the breathless breathed by His own nature; apart from Him there was nothing whatsoever.

    III. Darkness there was first concealed in darkness. All this was undiscriminated and diffused. Then it was undiscriminated and diffused. All this was covered by the void, the great pervading principle of the universe. By the great power of tapas (warmth) was produced that one (the universe).

    IV. In the beginning was desire - the primal seed of design (of the universe). The wise sages searched with their hearts' thought and discovered with their hearts thought and discovered the relation of the sat with asat.

    V. Their rays spread obliquely above and below. There were seed-holders, there were mighty forces free action here and energy up yonder.

    VI. Who verily knows and who can declare it here, where was this born and whence cane this manifold creation? The devas came after its production. Who knows whence it first came into being?

    (Griffith's translation slightly modified. Tr.)
    hr>

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    from within and without. He pervades the jiva the heart and the universe, He pervades these three and also surpasses them. The is beyond these three. In short, He is omnipresent filling the inner and outer sides of all thins Yajur Veda XXXI. 1.

    [In the next word purusha is used as a substantive and the words sahasra shirsha etc., as adjectives. The word purusha means God. He is so called because He pervades the universe puri (see Nirukta 1.13) or because He fills and exists in the entire cosmos or because the Supreme Lord fills this entire universe with His essence or because. He resides within and fills the interior of the jiva. the following verse of the Rigveda describes that inner purusha, the Supreme Lord who is the indwelling ruler of all. There never was any thing superiour to or higher thatn the Supreme Lord - the all-pervading one, who is called the

  6. Page 175
    purusha. there can never be anything equal or superior to Him.

    There was not, is not and shall never be anything greater than he. He moves and renders all things unstable but Himself remains unmoved, stable and without a tremor. As a tree supports its branches, leaves, flowers and fruits, so does God uphold this entire universe, from the earth to the sun etc.

    He is one, without a second. There is no second God of the same or of a different class. As the Supreme Lord fills all this (the universe) He is called the purusha. This verse is the highest authority for taking the word purusha in the sense of the all-pervading God. Nirukata II. 3.

    The word Sahasra according to the Shatapatha VII. 5, is the name of this entire universe.

  7. Page 176
    The phrase 'dashangulam' in the verse stands for the universe and the heart. The word angulam (finger) is her used as a name for limbs or members.
    1. It signifies the finite world. The entire universe is composed of ten parts, viz., fiver great and five subtle, i.e., altogether ten elements.
    2. The phrase may also be taken to mean five vital airs (<>pranas) the four inner senses, the manas, etc.., together with the outer senses, and the jiva as the tenth or agan,
    3. it may mean the jiva's heart which also measures ten finger breadths.
    II. That purusha alone , who is possessed of such attributes as the above, but not one else, is the maker of all universes of all times - past, present and future. Verily there is no other maker of the universe than He. He is the Lord and Ruler of all. He presides over and is the vouch-safer of the state of emancipation. None else possesses the power of bestowing it.

    He is independent of the distinct from the world - this earth - and He is free from birth, etc.. But though Himself unborn He makes all take birth and produces this 'cosmos - the effect- with His Samarthya - its

  8. Page 177
    first material cause. The first cause of Him - the Purusha, there is none, but He is the first efficient cause of all.

    III. If it be said that the past, the present and the future worlds are the measure of His greatness, it will become finite and something that can be measured. Hence it is said that His is not so much only. He far exceeds the greatness indicated by them. The entire cosmos, from prakriti to the earth and all the creatures, are only a fractional part of the greatness of the Almighty Lord.

    The bliss of emancipation is in His own self-effulgence and the three-fourths of the cosmos exists in the regions of light. The portion that illumines the world is three times as much again as the portion that is illumined. He is absolutely free and unhampered, the ruler of all, adored by all, all bliss, and illuminer of all.

  9. Page 178
    IV. The purport of the following verse is that the Purusha (God) is above and beyond and distinct from what has been described above as the three-fourths. He is distinct and separate from this world also which has been described as the one-fourth. The three-fourths cosmos and the one-fourth together make up four portions. The whole of this universe exists in the Supreme Being and is again absorbed in the cause -His Samarthya - at the time of the dissolution.

    Even then the Purusha shine above all, free from nescience, darkness, ignorance, birth, death, fever, disease and other suffering. Thereafter the universe is again created with His Samarthya.

    The animate, world, which moves and eats, i.e., the living beings endowed with life and consciousness, and the inanimate world, such as, the earth, etc., which does not eat, i.e., which is devoid of life and consciousness - both, are created this two-fold world through and through in many and beautiful ways and having created

  10. Page 179
    the two-fold universe pervades it altogether and entirely.

    V. From Him was produced Virat - the Shining One - the body of all the bodies, taken together collectively, resplendent with various objects, which is metaphorically described as one whose body is the universe, whose eyes are the sun and the moon, whose breath is the wind, and whose feet are the earth.

    After Virat were formed the special bodies of all living beings from the elements of the universe. These bodies derive growth from the elements and after death return to and are absorbed into them. God, however, remains distinct from all created beings. He first created the earth and gave it support and then the jives, through Hismight, supported their corporeal frames on it. The Purusha, the Supreme Being, is distinct from the Jiva also.

  11. Page 180
    VI. This verse has been partly explained in the chapter on the Revelation of the Vedas.

    All objects which are found in the universe were created by God's Samarthya and by Him they are upheld, although to some slight extent the jives also uphold and maintain the objects. All should, therefore, worship God alone and none else with an individed mind. He alone made the beast of the forest and the animals that live in towns. God alone made the birds of the air and the small living creatures, such as, insects, etc.

    [The word prishat in t he text comes from the root prishu to moisten or pour and hence it means that by which food, etc., that removes hunger, is moistened. ajyam means ghee, honey, milk, etc. Prishat stands for food which is masticated andAjyam for t hat which is eaten without mastication. The conjunction cha (and) denotes insects, moths, etc.]

  12. Page 181
    VII. This verse has been explained in the chapter on the Revelation of the Vedas.

    VIII. Horses were produced through the might of Purusha, also, were produced animals having two rows of teeth, such as, camels, asses, etc. Fromt ht emight of the Purusha were produced cows, the rays of light, the senses, and in like manner, were produced goats and sheep.

    [Although horses etc. are included among 'beasts of the forest,' and 'animals living in towns,; mentioned in one of the foregoing verses they are gain enumerated here in order to emphasize their good qualities.]

    IX. The learned, the sages, the seers of the Vedic verses and all other men receiving instruction from the Purusha (God) through the Vedas worshipped Him and placed Him

  13. Page 182
    exalted above all in the space (temple) of their heart - yea, Him the Purusha, the perfect Being, manifest from all times, the maker of the universe, the adorable.

    [The past tense 'worshipped, etc., in the verse denotes the present as well as the future.] The divine instruction conveyed by this verse is that all men should commence all works and undertakings with praise, prayer and worship of God.

    X. The question is asked in how many ways they describe the minght, and the attributes of this Purusha, some of whose attributes have been mentioned above; and, how they explain, in various ways the multifarious powers of Him, the Almighty Lord

    What is the mouth, what are the arms, what the thighs and what the feet of this Purusha, i.e., what was produced by Him with high and noble qualities; what with such attributes as strength, valor; what

  14. Page 183
    with middlemost qualities, such as, business instincts; what with the attributes of the lowest order, such as, want of intelligence, etc.

    XI The Brahmana is said to be produced from the mouth of the Purusha, i.e., from the first and foremost qualities, such as, knowledge, etc., and such acts as truthful speech and the vocation of a teacher and preacher. He made Kshatriya and ordained him to possess the qualities of strength and valor, etc.

    The qualities of agriculture and trade and commerce are of the middlemost order. The Vaishya or the trader was produced from those qualities by God's command. The Shudra, whose difference entiating attribute is the service of and dependence on others, was produced from qualities of the lowest order, such as, dullness of intellect, etc.

  15. Page 184
    We shall cite the authorities relating to the interpretation of this verse in the chapter on Varnashrama.

    [In this verse the past tense denotes all the tenses, because according to the grammatical rule given in Ashtadhyayi III. 4.6, in the Vedas, all the tenses, present, past and future, are used interchangeably].

    XII. The moon was produced from the mind, i.e., the reflective element of the Samarthya of this Purusha; the sun was produced from the eyes, i.e., the refulgent portion; the sky was produced from the ears i.e., the Akashic portion; the atmosphere was produced from the atmospheric portion and also, were produced from the mouth, i.e., the chief refulgent portion.

    XIII. The inter-stellar space or intermediate regions were produced from the navel, i.e.,

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    the power of fixing spatial relations of this Purusha; the shining spheres, the sun, etc. were produced from the head, i.e. the highest portion of the Samarthya which occupies a place of eminence like the head; God made the earth and waters from the feet, i.e., the highest portion of the Samarthya and from the ears, i.e., aural (Akashic) elements he produced the directions; and in like manner, God produced all he spheres and the animate and the inanimate objects contained therein from their respective elements of the Samarthya.

    XIV. The learned extended, do and will extend the yajna, from the agnihotra to the ashvamedha, and science with the help of the materials given by the above-mentioned PurushaNow are described the divisions of time which are necessary elements in the production of the world. Vasanta (spring) is like the ghee in this Yajna or in this universe produced by the Purusha; Grishma (the summer

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    season) like the fuel or fire and Sharat (winter season) like the oblation thrown into the fire.

    XV. The universe has seven circumferences. The line which passes round the outer surface of a sphere is comprised therein, viz.,

    1. The ocean,
    2. The atmosphere together with the small particles (the motes).
    3. The region of the clouds and the air thereof.
    4. the rain-water.
    5. The air above it.
    6. The air of extreme rarity called Dhanaanjaya.
    7. The ubiquitous electricity electricity (Sutratma - literally, the thread-soul).
    There are thus seven covers or circumferences one within other. The constituent elements of the universe are 21 in number. (1) The subtle elements comprising Prakriti (primordial matter) called Mahat, the internal organs, the intellect, etc., and jives; (2 - 11) the ten organs of sensation and action, viz., the ears, the epidermis, the eyes, the tongue, the nose, the organ of speech, the feet,
  18. Page 187
    the hands, the organ of excretion and the generative, (12 - 16) the five Tanmatras (the potential preceptibilia, viz., sound, touch, sight, taste and smell and (17 - 21) the five Bhutas (the elements) viz., earth, water, fire, air, and ether (akasha).

    These 21 are to be considered the chief ingredients in the construction of the world, although there are many more sub-ingredients derived from them. The learned fasten the Purusha with their contemplation who is all-seeing, the adorable Deity and the maker of the universe. They do not concentrate their mind upon any other object than God.

    XVI. The learned have paid, do and will always pay homage to God the worshipful, with praise, prayer and worship. All men ought to begin all actions and with these and no one ought to do anything which is not preceded by them. Verily, do the worshippers of God, exalted in glory, attain to Him and emancipation in which there is no pain or suffering.

  19. Page 188
    The learned men who qualified themselves in the past and those who are qualifying themselves now and those who will qualify themselves in future obtained and will obtain this highest state of bliss to be enjoyed for a hundred years of Brahma during which period there is no return to the cycle of births and deaths.

    On this verse Yaskacharay, the author of the Nirukta, observes: "The learned worshipping God with the soul and internal organs or they performed the universally beneficial yajnas, from the agnihotra up to theashvamedha, with the help of the terrestrial fire.

    Those who adopted the prescribed means and qualified themselves in former times are enjoying the bliss of emancipation - the highest state. The followers of the etymological school call this band of the learned (devas) the dwellers of the region of light, i.e., God, who is self-effulgent or because the devas live in the rays of knowledge. Nirukta XII. 41.

  20. Page 189
    XVII. The Purusha, in order to form the earth made the attenuatied matter (Apah) solid and thus made the earth. Similarly He produced the attenuated matter from the gaseous and the gaseous from ether (Akasha) and the etheric from the prakriti which He caused to evolve from the Samarthya.

    The universe before the creation existed (potentially) in its cause called the Samarthya of God who is called Vishvakarman - the Universal Architect - because He is the Doer (par excellence) of all action. At that time the whole of this universe was in the casual state and not such ( as it appears to us now). The Tvashta - the Fashioner - made the universe with parts of that Samarthya. then the whole universe assumed a perceptible form.

  21. Page 190
    Then also mortal man assumed a visible form (i.e., was created). At the time of revealing the Vedas, God promulgated this commandment for man through the Vedas. "Thou shalt find the desired happiness arising from the contact of the object with the senses by performing with thy action-body righteous works with attachment and thou shalt obtain the highest knowledge called emancipation by performing works without attachment.

    XVIII. This verse answers the question 'By knowing what canst thou become wise.

    The answer is:-
    I am certainly wise because I know the Purusha, the Supreme Lord whose attributes have been scribed above, who is the greatest of all, the oldest, self-effulgent, above and beyond the darkness of ignorance and nescience. No one can become wise without knowing Him because by knowing the Purusha,

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    the Supreme Lord, alone can a man cross death and attain to that state of the highest bliss (emancipation) which is beyond death. There is no other means of reaching that state.

    The use of the word 'only' (eva) in the text shows that no one should ever offer the slightest worship to any one except God (as the Deity). That this in fact is the meaning is also apparent from the words 'There is no other way of obtaining happiness either in the affairs of this world or those concerning the other world.

    The only road to happiness is the worship of God alone. There can be no doubt that by believing and worshipping another as God man comes to grief. The settled conclusion, therefore, is that the Purusha alone is the (legitimate) object of worship of all men.

    XIX. The Lord of creatures, the Ruler of all the animate and inanimate world, resides

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    within it as its indwelling ruler. He is unborn and increate. By His might alone the whole world is decked out with variegated objects. Those who can concentrate their mind upon Him obtain a perfect visions of His nature, i.e., they know that the way to realize Him is the performance of righteous acts and the acquisition of Vedic knowledge. In Him all the words find their support. Verily in Him - the Supreme Lord - do the constant and the wise rest satisfied and secure by obtaining the bliss of emancipation.

    XX. The All-pervading, the perfect Purusha sheds His luster into the inner sense of the learned because He bestows on them the bliss of emancipation which contains all happiness. He has been in existence from before the birth of learned because He is eternal. Our Salutations

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    are due to the lovable Brahma and also to His servants who, having acquired His knowledge from the learned, love Him with the love of a child for its parents.

    XXI. May the learned, who acquire this most lovable divine knowledge which is born to of God and hence is called His child, teach it and the means of acquiring it, to others. He, who acquires the knowledge of Brahma in this way, is called a Brahmana. The sense come under the control of the Brahmana who knows Brahma but never under the control of one who does not know Him.

    XXII. O God! All Shri (beauty) and all Lakshmi (splendid wealth) etc., serve Thee as the wives serve their husbands. Day and night are, as it were, Thy two sides. The sun and the moon, which are the axles of the wheel of time - the cause of all things, are, as it were,

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    Thy eyes. The constellations, which were produced from the parts of Thy Samarthya - the first material cause, add to the grace of Thy person. The shining firmament and the earth are, as it were, Thy open mouth. May we know that whatever things of beauty there are in this world declare the grace of Thy person, i.e. Smarthya. O Virat! the Lord that support of all! Be gracious into me and bestow on me, out of Thy grace, the bliss of emancipation after death.

    Grant through Thy favor that the blessings of all the worlds (or all the blessings of all the worlds (or all the blessings of the world), or of universal empire or of self-government be for me. Vouchsafe unto me O Perfect Almighty Lord! All beauties, splendors, wealth, and good and beautiful works and endow me with all good qualities through Thy grace. Destroy my defects and evil failings and make me without delay a repository of good qualities through Thy kindness

  26. Page 195
    We quote the following authorities in support of our interpretation of the words Shri and Lakshmi. In the Shatapatha I. 8. Shri is used in the sense of animals - symbol of good things of the world; in IV, 1. Shri means things of beauty or glory; in XIII, 1. it means things of beauty or glory; in XIII, 1. it means empire or its burdens and responsibilities. In the Nirukta IV. 10. Lakshmi is said to mean gain, acquisition, beautiful marks or qualities, speech, fame and renown, desirable acts or dislike for evil thins.

    Here ends the exposition of the Purusha Sukta.

    The Lord of creatures produced from its cause called His Samarthya this threefold universe, i.e., its three orders, viz., the higher ones, such as the Prakriti, etc., the lower ones, such as straw, mud, the small creatures, such as ants, insects, etc., and the middle ones, such as the bodies of men etc., up to ether (Akasha).

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    The Supreme Lord, Skambha, the Prajapati, who has made this threefold universe containing various objects, pervades it, but the universe does not pervade Him. This non-pervading three-fold universe is insignificant as compared to Him, the Supreme Lord.

    The Devas, i.e., the learned or the luminaries, the sun, etc., the Pitris, i.e., the wise, the Manushays i.e., the masters of the science of music, the Apsaras, i.e., their wives, (i.e., male and female musicians) and all the races of men that are found on earth or the heavenly bodies, the sun, etc., were all created by the Supreme Lord, who reigns supreme over all. The heavenly luminous spheres and the planets and their satellites, such as the earth, the moon, were also created by Him.

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    There are many other Vedic verses like the above with this subject (the creation).

    The Revolution and Rotation of the Spheres, the Earth, etc.
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    We shall now take into consideration the question whether the spheres like the earth and others revolve or not. According to the teachings of the Shastras, the Veda, etc., all the heavenly bodies, the earth, etc., are in motion.

    Our authorities for the motion of the earth are as follows:-

    The following verses teach that all the globes, the earth, etc., are in motion.

    this globe, i.e., the earth as well as the sun, the moon, are revolving in space (Prishni=Antariksha). The same is true of the other globes also. Among them the earth along with the waters of the oceans, which are, as it were, her mother, resolves round the sun who is a mass of fire. Similarly, ether is said to be the mother and air to be the father of the sun, and

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    the fire is said to be the father and water to be the mother of the moon - Yajurveda IX.6.

    [In the Nighantu of Yaskacharya, the word 'Gow' occurs among the 21 names of the earth such as 'gma' and 'jma' etc.. and the word 'prishni' among the six names of interstellar space (Antariksha). Nirukta II. 5. The earth is called 'gow' because he moves on and on or because living beings move upon her.

    The sun is called 'gow' because he causes the heavenly bodies to revolve round him or because he causes the vapors to move, or because he himself move in space. 'Dyauh' is called 'gow' because it extends far and away from the earth or because the rays of light move in it Nirukta II. 14. The word 'gow' is the name of the sun's rays, the moon and Gandharva

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    also in the Vedas. Nirukta II. 9. Svah is the name of the sun. Nirukta II.14. The earth is called 'gow' because it is every minute in motion.

    In the Taittiriyopanishat it is said that the earth was produced from water, and hence water is regarded as the mother of the earth; because that is to be considered as the mother of an object from which it is produced. From the fact that the word 'Svah' means the sun and the word 'pitar' is uses as an adjective qualifying it, it is evident that he is to be regarded as the father of the earth.

    The meaning of the phrase 'duramgata' (in the passage quoted from the Nirukta) is that the earth moves round the sun keeping at a distance from him (or that she tries to fly at a tangent from him). Similarly, all spheres, supported by God's might = the force of gravitation, revolve in their orbits.

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    The said earth revolves round the sun in her orbit which has been fixed by God for her revolution. The earth supplies the living beings with abundant juices and fruits of various kinds and fulfils the fixed laws of her motion. She provides the performers of noble deeds, who give liberally, and the learned, with all their comforts by her bounty and she is, indeed, the cause of the audible speech of all living beings. Rigveda VII.2.10,1

    The next verse teaches that the moon revolves round the earth.

    The moon, whose nourishing properties are well-known, revolves round the earth. Sometimes in the course of her journey she comes between the earth and the sun. we shall explain this more fully in our commentary. The meaning of the words 'Dyava prithivi atatantha', which occur in the verse, are that the sun (Dyava) and the earth (prithivi) also

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    are in motion. It is, therefore, established that all heavenly bodies move in their orbits. Rigveda. VI.4.13.3.

    Gravitation and Attraction
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    The purport of the following verse is that all heavenly bodies are attracted by the sun, and the sun together with the other spheres is upheld by the attracting power of God.

    (The verse is capable of two interpretations according as the word Indra is taken to mean God or the sun. in the original the two interpretations are given together, but we have taken the liberty to give them separately dor the sake of greater clearness.. - Tr.)

    O Glorious and Mighty Lord! When thou puttest forth Thy great attributes of strength and prowess they uphold all the worlds according

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    to the at all times.

    The glorious sun, by putting forth his powerful rays which possess the properties of attraction, illumination and motion, keeps all the worlds in order through the force of his attraction. Rigveda VI.1.6.3.

    It is for this reason that the heavenly bodies do not deviate from their orbits.

    Like the preceding verse the following also contains the science of attraction.

    O Glorious and Mighty Lord! (or the Glorious sun!) when they mortal (in the one case) and aerial (in the other) subjects obey thy law of support (in the one) and of attraction (in the other) then alone all the worlds are rendered firm and habitable. This is the reason why they move in their appointed orbits. Rigveda VI.1.6.4.

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    The next verse also is the same effect.

    O God! Thou has made the sun. with Thy infinite power and refulgent Self Thou art upholding the spheres, the sun, etc. All the globes, the sun, etc. are made firm by Thy power of attraction. As such globes as the earth, etc., are upheld by t he sun's attraction so sun himself and the other worlds also are upheld by the law of God. Rigveda VI.1.6.5.

    The next verse means that God and the sun are upholding all worlds by means of attraction and illumination.

    O God through Thy Might alone the sun upholds the dark and the luminous globes. Thou art, like a friend, the regulator of all the worlds. That wonderful body - the sun dispels darkness with its bright rays and with its power of support and attraction makes the dark and the luminous globes, which in their own turn afford support to others, steadfast. The worlds are

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    attached to the sun like the hair to the body. As the hair are fixed in the skin so the worlds are kept in their places by the power and attraction of the sun. Rig. IV.5.10.3.

    It is, therefore, proved that the suns, etc., uphold the whole of this universe and God upholds the suns, etc.

    The next verse also contains the science of attraction. The Supreme Lord (or the sun) is upholding all spheres with His (or his) glorious (or brilliant) power of attraction and with the gift of knowledge (or light) which makes the happiness-producing activities possible.

    He (or he) vouchsafes true knowledge (or the bundle of rays) to the abode of mortal man, or fixes its place for it. He (or he) bestows immortality (emancipation) or rain which produces vegetation and hence is a source of life)

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    on the earth (i.e., its dwellers - Tr.)The self-effulgent Lord (or the brilliant sun) upholds al the worlds and makes everything visible and the form and color of all objects clear and distinct. Yajur-Veda. XXXII.43

    (By reading the words 'dyubhi-raktubhih' of the next preceding verse (i.e., from XXXIII 42 -Tr) into this verse the meaning would be that the sun attracts all the globes day and night, i.e., at every moment. Besides this, all the globes possess their own power of gravitation; but God is the repository of infinite power of attraction. Rajas is the name of the globes. Yaskacharya - the author of the Nirukta - says "The globes are called Rajansi Nirukta IV 19. The word 'ratha' signifies knowledge or light which is the source of happiness

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    See Nirukta IX.2. The word Vishvanara, means the sun. Nirukta XII. 2. There are many verses in the Vedas like this which treat of the power of support and attraction.

    On the Illuminer and the Illumined
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    We now proceed to consider that the moon etc., shine with the light of the sun.

    The meaning of the next verse is that the sun illumines the earth and the moon.

    The meaning of the next verse is that the sun illumines and the earth and the moon.

    This earth is upheld in space by the eternal Brahma, the sun and the air. The sun is the upholder of all light. The twelve months owe their existence to time, the rays of light are generated and rendered strong by the sun, and the motes and particles are upheld by the air. In the firmament the moon depends on

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    the sun for her light, e.e., such globes as the moon, etc., do not possess a light of their own. All of them shine with the light of the sun. Atharva Veda XIV.1.1.

    The rays of the sun falling on the surface of the moon are reflected on the earth and become invigorating because they come to possess strength-giving virtues in the following manner. That region of space, where the sun's rays cannot reach on account of the interception of them by the earth, becomes rather cold. That region being deprived of the suns rays is devoid of heat also.

    The lunar rays (in the absence of solar light) impart vigor and strength. The earth is rendered strong and powerful by the light of the moon and by such medicinal herbs, as the soma plant, (which are nourished by lunar light). It is for this purpose (of rendering them strong) that moons are placed

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    near the planets. Atharva XIV 1.2

    Four questions are asked in this verse, viz.,

    1. The sun wanders alone in the universe, shining with his own light and illumining other worlds.
    2. The moon shines with the light of the sun and she does not possess any light of her own.
    3. fire is the remedy of cold.
    4. The earth is the great field for sowing the seeds. Yajur Veda XXII 10.

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    There are many mantras in the Vedas similar to the above dealing with this subject.

    The Science of Mathematics
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    The next two verses reveal sciences of Algebra and Geometry.

    When the numeral signifying unity is added to another such numeral it makes two, one and two make three, two and two make four, three and three make six. In the same way the numeral four, five, etc., occurring in this verses show that the science of mathematics is evolved by treating and figures in different ways, such as addition, etc.

    The frequent use of the conjunction 'cha', and shows that there are many branches of this science. It is known to all that this science has been fully dealt with in Jyotishshastra which is a limb of the Vedas (Vedanga). For this reason we do not dilate upon it here. But it is to be remembered that such verses contain the germs of the science of mathematics which is the subject matter of the books on Jyotish

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    (Astronomy). The science of Numbers (Arithmetic) deals with known, whereas the science of Algebra with unknown, and uncertain quantities. These verses suggest the latter science also by suggesting the symbols a3 - b, etc., Yajur Veda XVIII 24 and 25

    According to the maxim that one act serves of

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    a double purpose, the marks of short and long vowels given over the letters of this verse (SamaI.1.) contain an allusions to the science of Algebra.

    There is a third branch of the mathematical science called Geometry which is alluded to in the following verses.

    In these two verses the science of Geometry is referred to.

    The vedi is to be made of a triangular, quadrilateral, circular shape or in the likeness of a Shyena bird. The purpose of the direction to make the vedi of various shapes is to suggest geometrical science. A line running round the parts of the earth farthest from it center is called the circumference.

    A line drawn from any point on the circumference and passing through the center is called the diameter or the middle line in geometry. This line is the navel of the world, the earth and the universe, because all such lines converge to

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    meet in the center so the yajna is the navel of the universe because it is to be resorted to (by all). Similarly, the other globes, the moon, etc., have their circumference, etc. The main-causing sun, light, heat and the air also, have got their circumferences in order to give them their (requisite) velocity. Their (of the sun, air, etc.) power in the shape of medicines is widespread. The Veda (Brahma) encompasses speech from within and without like a circumference. Yajur XXIII 62.

    What is the true knowledge of all things, who is its possessor, and what is the intellect that is necessary for acquiring right knowledge? Who is the measurer, who measures and counts all? What is the cause and what is the essence, like ghee, in this world, which ought to be known or which is the destroyer of all suffering and the essence lubricated with happiness? What is the back-cover viz., the circumference (which is a line passing

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    round a spherical object? What is the independent and what the praiseworthy object?

    The answers to these questions are:-

    The Supreme Lord whom the learned have worshipped, do and shall ever worship, knows everything as it is. He is the Measurer of all. The answers to the remaining questions are to be found out by construing the words of the verse in a similar manner. Rig VIII. 7.18.3.

    [The word parijhi' 'circumference' shows that here there is an allusion to the geometrical science. This science has been dealt with in detail in the Jyotish-Shastra, the science of astronomy.]

    The Vedas contain many verses which treat of the mathematical science.

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    Praise, Prayer and Worship of God, Supplication to Him and Resignation to His Will
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    The subject of divine praise was touched upon in the verses beginning with 'Yobhutam eha', We revert to it here also. Now we take up the subject of prayer.

    The following verses 'Tejosi', etc. treat of praise, prayer of God.

    "O Supreme Lord! Thou shines forth with Thy attributes of infinite knowledge, etc., fill me with the light of knowledge unlimited! Thou art of infinite prowess, O Lord! Endow me with firm vigor and activity of body and mind (intellect) through Thy grace; O Lord of Supreme might! Thy power is infinite, be pleased to grant unto me excellent power; O Lord! Thou art of moral force (ojas) do vouchsafe unto me the strength (born of) truth and knowledge; O Lord! In Thee resides righteous indignation towards the evil-doers, impart by Thy will that indignation to me also! O suffering Lord! Thou art sufferance, enable me to bear pleasure and pain with equanimity. Be graciously pleased to endow me with these

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    good qualities." Yajur XIX 9.

    " O most glorious Lord! Make my senses, e.g., the sense of hearing, etc., and the mind strong and healthy. May it be Thy pleasure to protect us and make us the possessors of all the good things of the world. In Thee, O Lord! Are the treasures of the highest wisdom, etc. So will that the best riches, such as the glories of empire, be for our benefit and enable us to attain them."

    [God commands men to acquire and aspire for these good qualities.]

    "O Lord! May our wishes become always fruitful through Thy grace. May our aspiration to participate in the administration of world-wide empire be never frustrated." Yajur II 10.

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    'O God Agni do Thou always endow us with that excellent and steady understanding which is constantly sought after by the learned and the wise. Svaha" Yajur XXXII, 14

    [The author of the Nirukta in VIII, 20 makes the following observations on the world Svaha.]

    "Svaha means that all men should always employ and mild speech devoted to the good of all creatures. They should utter with their tongue what they feel in their own consciousness. they should call what belongs to them their own and should never claim as theirs what belong to others. They should offer oblations into the fire after purifying and dressing them properly and carefully."

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    The next verse contains God's blessing to men: "Ye Men! May you arms and weapons, such as firearms, guns and cannon, bows and arrows and swords, etc., be very firm and strong and praiseworthy through My grace; may they bring about the defeat of your enemies and lead you on to victory and may they check the onslaughts of the enemy's forces and defeat and rout them.

    May your armies be highly efficient (well equipped and well trained) and strong, so that your world-wide empire may remain intact and secure, and may your foes, perpetrators of foul deeds, who oppose you, be worsted (in battle). But this blessing of Mine descends on those only who do righteous deeds and never on those who are guilty of treachery and injustice." The meaning is that God never blesses those who act unrighteously." Rig I.3.18.2.

    "O Lord! Render us happy, strong and free

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    that we may entertain high and noble aspirations and obtain most nourishing food. Fill us always with untiring and unflagging zeal to put forth our utmost efforts for attaining the rank of a Brahmana with a view to acquire the knowledge of the Vedas. Make us bravest of the brave and endow us with the instincts of a Kashatriya that we may become partners of a worldwide empire and wielders of sovereign power.

    Enable us to make utmost endeavors to acquire scientific proficiency and mechanical skill in the use and management of machines and vehicles that we may do good to all mankind like the sun, the fire, etc., which are serving the universe by supplying it with light and contributing to its welfare.

    O Lord of righteousness! Thou art just, make us also lovers of law and justice; O Universal Benefactor! Thou art free from ill-will, make us also friendly and devoid of feelings of enmity towards all. So will, O Lord! That the benefits of good government, good laws and precious things be for us, may we become good Brahmanas and learned in the Vedas lore, good Kshatriyas and rulers, and good Vaishyas and

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    citizens. We pray and beseech Thee to endow us with all excellent qualities and enable us to realize all our desires and aspirations." Yajur XXXVIII, 14.

    "The mind of a man in his wakeful state presides over and exercises masterly control over all his senses and possesses the bright (divya) qualities of knowledge, etc. In his sleepy state also it becomes cognizant of bright (divya) objects and in the state of sound and dreamless sleep it experiences pure and unalloyed (divya) happiness.

    By its nature it is far reaching in its grasp and is the light of the senses and brings into the light of consciousness all objects, the sun, etc. It is unaided and alone. "O Lord! May this mind of mine - the instrument of thought, always love to dwell on beneficent, desirable and righteous acts and

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    noble qualities." Yajuh XXXIV, 1.

    The verses of the 18th chapter of the Yajur Veda Vajashcha me, etc., enjoin that we should surrender all things to God.

    We should, therefore, ask from God all good objects beginning with emancipation and ending with foods and drinks.

    Yajna means Vishnu - the pervader. Shatapatha I, 2. 13, God is called Vishnu because He pervades the whole universe. All men should surrender their life to Him. May we; in order to express our gratitude, surrender to God all we have, e.g., our breath (vitality), sight, speech (the senses), mind, i.e., thoughts and knowledge, soul, the qualifications of Brahmana - the performer of Yajnas, who knows the four Vedas - the light of the sun, law, justice, happiness, the earth which is the abode, subsistence and support of all,

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    Yajna, the Ashvamedha, etc., or arts and sciences, collection of praises, the study of the Rigveda, the Yajurveda, the Samaveda and (the study of) the Atharvaveda which is indicated by the conjunction 'cha' (and), the enjoyment of the fruits of great undertakings and the results of scientific and mechanical activities.

    The most merciful Lord will then give us the best and the highest bliss, we shall be illumined the light of happiness and shall attain the highest bliss of emancipation. May we be the subjects of His Divine Majesty, i.e., may we never acknowledge any man except God as the king par excellence. May we always speak the truth and endeavor with the greatest zeal to do the evil of the Lord. May we never transgress His will, but serve Him always with filial love. Yajuh XVIII, 29

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    Worship
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    The following verses lay down that God alone is to be worshipped.

    I."The wise yogins - the worshippers of God, concentrate their mind on and seek union with the Omniscient Lord, who has made this world and is a witness to the good and evil thoughts of all the jives and knows all the creatures. He is one without a second, all-pervading and knowledge itself. There is no one superior to Him. To Him the illuminer and maker of the universe should all men, under all circumstances, offer highest praise. In this way will the jiva be able to attain to Him." Rig IV 4. 24.

    II. "God is graciously pleased to direct to Himself the intellect of those, who, with a view obtain an insight into the secrets of divine

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    knowledge, concentrate their mind upon Him with the help of Yoga exercises. The distinguishing feature of a yogi worshipper of God in this world is that he realizes the self-effulgent God, Agni and installs Him in his soul."

    III. Let all men cultivate such desires as the following:-

    "May we, with our inner senses rendered pure by yoga and by developing our Yogi powers, seek to dwell in the infinite glory of the self-luminous Lord, the giver of happiness, and the indwelling ruler of all that we may attain the bliss of emancipation."

    IV. "The in-dwelling ruler of all, the Lord Supreme, graciously illumines the souls of yogi worshippers, who, with the help of yoga exercises, worship Him with pure thoughts and love. The most merciful Lord in His mercy reveals His infinitely bright form to His loving worshippers and renders them happy by bestowing on them the gift of emacipation."

    V. God promises to the teacher and the learner of worship:-

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    "My blessings descend upon you when you worship Me, the eternal Brahma, with firm resolve and earnestness of soul. may your fame spread far and wide like that of the learned in the paths of righteousness.

    Those worshippers alone who obey My will and serve Me - the blissful and eternal Lord are able to perform glorious deeds of knowledge and worship and to make happy regions or births their abode. May you the teachers and the learners of worship listen to this carefully. I become accessible to you only when you worship Me in this manner." Yajuh, 1, 2.3.4.

    VI.

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    The purpose of worshipping God with the help of yoga exercises, i.e., they practice to realize the presence of the Lord in them and perform acts which are consonant with the science of yoga. Such men easily obtain rank among the learned yogins and attain the state of the highest bliss."

    VII. "O Yogins! always enjoy freely the bliss of communion with God with the help of yoga and the bliss of emancipation and perform acts of worship by meditating upon God in the arteries, etc., which are the seat of Prana (Vital air).

    Having thus purified your internal senses sow the seed of yogic worship, viz., pure an perfect knowledge (vijnana) in your causal body, the seat of the highest bliss, by performing the acts of worship and make yourselves proficient in Vedic learning.

    You will thus soon have the full fruition of yoga, viz., pure and unalloyed bliss within your immediate reach through the grace of God. Attain union with God with the help of yogic activities (or faculties) directed towards worship. Verily, these activities are destructive of all pain and full of peace and tranquility, etc."

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    According to the Nirukta VI.12. the word 'shrushti' in the verse means 'soon' and XIII.5 ibid. says that srini' is a destructive and also a constructive faculty.

    VIII. "O Supreme Lord! May the twenty eight substances, viz., the ten organs of sensation and action, the ten vital airs, the mind, and the intellect, the faculty of thought, and self-consciousness (Ahamkara), knowledge, instinct, and bodily strength, be productive of good and happiness through Thy grace.

    May my days and nights be spent in the act of Thy worship. By Thy grace enable me to advance from yoga to kshema and from kshema to yoga (i.e. may I retain what I have already got and get what I do not possess). I always beseech Thee O Lord! To help and succor me."

    The foregoing and the following verses are from the Atharva Veda.

    IX. "O Lord! Thou art the Lord and Master of creatures or of speech or of action,

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    and by Thy omnipotence and excellence thou surpassest all immeasurably. Thou art the destroyer of harmful speech and action. Thou art the pervader, and capable of accomplishing all things. May we always worship Thee alone in the aforesaid manner."

    [The word 'shachi' means speech' see Nighantu I, II; 'action' ibid II. 1; and 'creatures' ibid III. 9]

    X. God says to men: "Ye men! Know me properly by means of worship and conduct yourelves as befits those who know Me. Let a worshipper know this (truth) and say, 'O Lord of infinite knowledge! May I always humble myself before Thee.''

    XI. "Graciously watch over us O Lord! We adore Thee always. May we always be rich in food and the glories of empire. May the true renown born of the performance

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    of righteous, noble and excellent acts be ours. May we never be weak and dependent but be always strong and powerful and may our learning and knowledge be full and complete."

    XII. "Thou art, O Lord! All-pervading tranquil as (deep) water, the life of life, knowledge itself, the adorable, the greatest of all, tolerant. Knowing that Thou art such we offer worship to Thee."

    [The word 'ambhah' is derived from the root 'Aptri' by adding the suffix 'asun' to it.]

    XIII. "Thou art, O Lord! Ambhah (all-pervading), tranquil as deep water, the life of life), self-refulgent, lovable, all-bliss, possessed of all the glories of the whole universe and giver of the power of toleration. We offer worship to Thee O Lord! May we never forsake Thee and never worship any one else."

    [The word 'Ambhah' which has been already explained is repeated here as a mark of veneration.]

    XIV. "Thour art O Lord! Almighty, omnipresent, infinitely immense, penetrating all objects through and through and vast as space.

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    Knowing, that thou art such we offer worship to Thee."

    {'Uru' in the sense of 'immense,' and 'many' is well known. See Nighantu III.1.XV. "Thou art, O Lord! The architect (the spreader) of the universe and the noblest of all; Thou knowest the universe in all its multifariousness, thou seest all the enablest all to see and all men try to obtain a vision of Thee. We offer worship O omniscient Lord! To Thee who art of such a form."

    XVI. (This verse is capable of several interpretations. Tr.)

    Ist. "The learned yogins, unite their soul with the omniscient Lord who knows all things or men and the universe fully, who inures none and is merciful, and bliss. They shine with the light of the highest bliss and becoming refulgent themselves dwell in Him Who is the light of all."

    ['Arusham' comes from the root 'rush' to injure].

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    verse 5, calls, 'prana' by the name of 'aditya'.

    2nd. "All the worlds and all the objects are subject to the force of attraction of the sun, who is a ball of fire and moves himself and imparts motion to others. All are beautified and shine with his light in the bright sky."

    3rd. "The worshippers, who unite, with the self-refulgent Lord, their breath according to the methods of yoga for controlling it, shine in God with the light of the bliss of emancipation. The breath has access to all things, has its seat in the vital parts of the body and is the cause of the growth and development of all bodily organs."

    [The word 'tashthushah' means 'man'. Nighantu II.3, and 'bradhna' means 'great'. Nighantu III. 3. The Shatapatha takes the words 'bradhnamarusham' in the sense of the 'sun'. XIII. 2. The Prashnopanishat Question 1.

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    There is not one greater than God. Hence, 'bradhna' has been taken to mean great in the first interpretation; it has been taken in the second as the name of the sun according to the Shatapatha and in the third interpretation it has been rendered as breadth according to the Prashnopanishat. 'Bradhna' and 'arusham' occur as the names of horse also in the Nighantu but that meaning is not applicable in this Mantra since it would be opposed to the sense assigned to it in the Shatapatha and to the root sense and also because one word would have many significations at one and the same place
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    Prof. Max Muller interprets 'bradhna' as horse in his English translation of the Rigveda. It is grounded in error. Sanyanacaharya in his commentary on this verse takes this word to mean the sun and so is correct in one respect. But we do not know where Prof. Max Muller got his interpretations, in the sky or in the antipodes. It appears that it is a creation of his own imagination and consequently of no authority.

    Now we shall write as to how we should perform worship. One should select a place clean, neat, pleasant and solitary and purging

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    the mind of al impurities, making oneself calm and composed, collecting and concentrating and senses and the mind and contemplating the Supreme Soul, who is all-existence, all-consciousness, all-bliss, the indwelling ruler of all and just, by focusing one's soul thereon and duly offering praise and prayer unto Him, should again and again fix one's soul in Him.

    The great devotee Patanjali in his aphorisms on Yoga and Vyasa in his commentary thereon have laid down the following method of worship. 'Yoga is the restrain mental activities. Yoga I.1.2. The mental activities should always be restrained from other subjects than God and from unrighteousness at the time of worship and at the time of worship and at the time of taking part in secular affairs.

    The reply to the question: 'Where do they rest when restrained' is: "They rest in the form of the Seer (God). I.1.3. When the mind of the devotee is turned away from all mundane affairs it finds rest in the form of Omniscient God. As to whether the conduct of devotee when he, leaving the act of devotion, engages in the affairs of the world is similar to or is in any way different from

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    that of an ordinary man of the world it is said in I,\.1.4. 'Elsewhere (also) the activities remain identical.' The activities of a devotee even when he mixes with the affairs of the world remain calm, firmly fixed in the righteousness, shinning with the light of knowledge and wisdom, attached to truth, extremely sharp and swift, extraordinary and different from those of an ordinary man. Never can the activities of a non-devotee and of a non-yogi be of this nature.

    Q. -How many activities are there and how are they to be restrained?

    A. ~ 'The activities are five, painful and painless.' 'They are proof (true knowledge), perversion (false knowledge), imagination, sleep and memory.' 'The proofs are direct perception, inference and the Vedas.' 'Perversion is false knowledge, having a form which is not its own.' 'Imagination is that which follows verbal expression and has no objective reality corresponding to the word.' 'Sleep is that mental activity which has for its objective substratum the cause of non-existence.' 'Memory is the not-stealing of what has been

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    the subject of experience.' They (activities) are restrained by practice and non-attachment.' I.1. 5-12.

    Q. - What is the most helpful means in devotion?

    A. ~ 'Or my means of the contemplation of God.' I.1.23. 'When special devotion is exhibited towards God He showers His grace on the devotee through mere contemplation. By the help of meditation the yogi acquires soon the state and the fruit of absorption (samadhi).'

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    But who this Ishvara (God> who is distinct from Purusha (Jiva) and Prakriti (primeval matter)? 'Ishvara is a special purusha who is not touched by pain, action, the result of action and impression' (Yoga I. 1. 24). 'The pains such as nescience, good and bad actions, their fruits and the impressions reside in the mind and are referred to the purusha (Jiva), he being the enjoyer of their fruits, in the same way as victory and defeat are referred to the commander although they exist in the warriors.

    That special purusha who is not touched by the enjoyment (of fruits) is Ishvara. There are many who have reached the state of emancipation by breaking asunder the three bonds. God never had, nor will ever have this relation [i.e., bondage and freedom there from]. No previous bondage can be inferred in the case of God as is done in that of a soul which has been emancipated. Similarly, subsequent bondage is possible only for a soul which is now bound by prakriti; but not for God. He was not in bondage in the past, nor will He be in bondage in the future. He is eternally free and eternally the Lord. Is the excellence of the transcendental

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    power of God manifested eternally caused or is it uncaused? Shastra [the Veda] is its cause and the cause of the Shastra is His transcendental power. The Shastra and the excellence are eternally related with each other because, both of them reside in the nature of God. He is, therefore, eternally free and eternally the Lord. His glory can neither be equaled nor surpassed. It cannot be surpassed by another glory. For, if it were the case, that other glory would be God.

    God is, therefore, He in whom glory reaches its highest limit. Nor is there any glory which can equal His. If we think of two qualities, equal to each other in all respects, as coming into being at one and the same time we shall have to think of the one as new and of the other as old. Also, because the existence of the one will imply the destruction of the self-sufficient glory of the other. It cannot be proved that there is complete identity between two beings possessing equal qualities because, there shall be some difference or other between them. God is therefore, that special purusha whose glory is neither equaled nor surpassed. 'In Him the seed of the

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    Omniscient is not surpassed.' I.1.25. Thought knowledge of the past, the present and the future in its totality is beyond the grasp of the senses it can be spoken of in quantitative terms as being smaller or larger. It is the seed of omniscient for, we can go on augmenting it in thought and it must have its farthest limits. He is omniscient in whom knowledge reaches its farthest limits.

    Now there is a limit of the seed of the omniscient, for, it is capable of being increased like a measure of weight etc., that special purusha is such an omniscient being. This is the most rudimentary idea of God which we can reach by the help of inference. It is impossible to acquire a complete knowledge of Him. One desiring to know His names, i.e., qualities should study the Vedas.

    Although He does not desire His own benefit, He does desire the good of all creatures. He desires: I shall do good to the jives during creation, the disjunction of soul and body and the great dissolution by preaching to them wisdom and righteousness. It is said "the first among the learned, the great sage, the Lord, having decided upon the revelation of the Veda, mercifully

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    revealed it to the Jivas who were yearning to know it.

    'He is the teacher even of the ancients, because He is not circumscribed by time,' I.1.26. Even the most ancient teachers were subject to the limit of time; but this limiting action of time cannot affect Him; hence, He is the teacher of the ancients.

    As He was untrammeled in His action in the beginning of creation , even so will He remain when this creation shall have passed away. 'Prana' (the sacred syllable Om) is His appellation.' I.1.27. Pranava signifies God. But, is this relation of the signifier and the signified symbolic or is it fixed like the relation between the lamp and its light? It is fixed and constant.

    The symbol only brings to light the constant relation of God with Pranava in the same way as the symbol, 'this is his father, this is his son' brings to light the fixed relation of father and son. In other creations also the relation between the signified and signifier is brought to light by means of words and a symbol is used in accordance with it. The philologists know that the relation between a word and its meaning is eternal because they

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    are always existent. The relation of the signified and the signifier the yogis believe it to be eternal. 'to repeat it and to ponder over its meaning.' I.1.28, i.e., the repetition of Pranava and meditation on God - whose name is Pranava.

    When a yogi repeats Pranava and meditates on its sense his mind becomes concentrated. It ha been said also: One should practice yoga with the help of the repetition of Om and should repeat the Pranava in the state of Yoga. In virtue of the strength born of the repetition of Pranava and the practice of yoga. one obtains the vision of the Supreme Self.

    What does the yogi gain thereby? 'Thence be acquires the power of turning his thoughts

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    on his soul and the obstacles disappear.' I.1.29. The obstacles are diseases, etc. These are warded off by meditation on God and he obtains a vision of his own form. He realizes that God is pure and holy, calm and blissful, one, without a second, absolute, unborn and increate purusha and that a knowledge of the soul can be acquired with the intellect only.

    Now what are the obstacles which distract the mind (chitta). They are disease, lassitude, indecision (doubt), carelessness, laziness, sensuality, delusion, non-attainment of the substratum and unsteadiness.' I.1.30. These are the nine obstacles which distract the mind. They come into existence with the activities of the mind and disappear when the latter cease to exist.

    The activities of the mind have been mentioned above. Disease is the disturbance of the equilibrium of the substances, juices and organs (of the body); lassitude is that in which the mind desires to get rid of action; indecision (doubt) is that state in which knowledge touches both extremes, e.g., it may be so, it may not be so; carelessness is the not-caring for the means of Samadhi (absorption), laziness is aversion to act on account of the

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    heaviness of the body or the mind; sensuality is the hankering of the mind after the gratification of the senses; delusion is false knowledge; non-attainment of the substratum is the failure to reach the region of absorption and unsteadiness is the inability to fix the mind on the region of absorption.

    The mind, becomes steady only when the state of absorption is reached. These are the nine distracting elements of the mind, the defilers and the enemies of yoga. 'Pain' despondency, quivering of limbs, in-breathing and out-breathing are the concomitants of these distractions' I.1.31. Pain either arises within the body itself or is caused either by other beings or by the physical forces of the world. The living beings when smitten with it try to destroy it.

    Despondency is that disturbance of the mind which results from the frustration of desire. Quivering of limbs is that which makes the limbs quiver. In-breathing is that in which external air is inhaled into the body. Out-breathing is that in which the air within the body is exhaled. These are the concomitants of distractions because they befall a man whose mind is distracted and not him whose mind is collected. These distractions are

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    the enemy of absorption. Hey can be checked by the said exercise and non-attachment. The author now gives a brief description of the subject of exercise as follows:- 'for their prevention constant practice of one tatva (truth)' I.1.32. In order to remove these distractions one should practice to concentrate the mind on one tatva.

    The man whose mind wanders from object to object getting momentary perception only cannot be said to have a concentrated mind. His whole mind is distracted. When it is withdrawn from all other objects and is focused on one subject only then alone it becomes concentrated. There is, therefore, one mind for every object.

    He who believes that the mind remains concentrated because there is a flow of similar perceptions (and the mind flows from one perception to another similar perception may be asked as to whether this concentration is the attribute of the flowing mind. If it is, then the mind cannot be said to be one because the flowing mind lasts for a moment only. If it be said that concentration is the attribute of the perceptions which are parts of the flow then the question will arise as to whether the flow is the flow of similar

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    perceptions or of dissimilar perceptions. If it be held that the mind is concentrated because for the time being it is focused on one object then there will be no distracted mind. Therefore, the mind is one, although it is applied to different objects. If it be said that perceptions are inherently different from each other and they are produced without any relation to the mind which is one then the things seen by one perception will be remembered by another perception and the fruits of actions gathered by one perception will be enjoyed by another.

    Even if it be possible for such a mind to become concentrated the objection contained in the maxim of 'cow-dung and milk rice' will apply.* The position that there are different



    The maxim of "the cow-dung and milk rice." The story which has given rise to this maxim is that a person when rice cooked in mil was served to him asked as to how it was prepared and he was told that it was prepared by cooking rice in a produce of cow. Next time thinking that cow-dung also was a produce of cow began to cook rice with cow-dung. This maxim is applied when a man distrusts his own experience and acts in opposition to it.
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    minds involves the falsification of one's own experience. In that case how will one be able to say: 'I am touching that which I saw and I am seeing that which I touched.' How will the perception of the I (I am) existing in minds altogether different from one another be referable to one perceiver. One's won experience teaches one that the perception 'i am' denotes one single self.

    Now the strength of direct perception cannot be overcome by any other proof; for, other proofs depend for their utility on the strength of direct perception. Therefore the mind is one although it is applied to many objects and this treatise (Yoga Shastra) sets forth the means of purifying that mind.

    'The peace of mind is secured by thoughts

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    of friendliness towards happiness, of compassion towards misery, of joy towards righteousness and of indifference towards sin. I.1. 33. Let one have thoughts of friendliness towards all beings endowed with happiness, of compassion towards those who are miserable, of joy towards those of sinful proclivities.

    By entertaining such thoughts white (pure) characteristics (dharma) are engendered in one and then the mind becomes peaceful it acquires concentration or steadiness. 'Optionally (it becomes concentrated) by forcible ejection and stoppage of breathing I.1.34.

    Or, one may acquire steadiness of mind by forcible ejection, i.e., vomiting of the air within the body (stomach) through the two nostrils and then stopping it outside. Steadiness of mind should be acquired by throwing out the air from within the body with effort just as one throws out (vomits) the food which one has eaten and then by keeping it (the air) outside as long as one is able to do so. 'On the destruction of impurity by means of the practice of the limbs (accessories) of

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    yoga, the light of wisdom up to discriminative knowledge (is acquired) I.2.28. By the practice of these limbs of yogic devotion impurity, i.e., ignorance goes on decreasing everyday and knowledge goes on increasing until the attainment of emancipation. 'Restraint, observance, posture, regulation of breath, abstraction, concentration, meditation and absorption are the eight limbs I.2.29.

    'Non-injury, truthfulness, abstinence from stealing, continence and non-covetousness are the restraints (yamas). I.2.30. Non-injury means the complete absence of enmity towards all beings at all times. The other restraints (yamas) and observances (niyamas) have their 'root' in non-injury. They depend on its success and are practiced for the purpose of acquiring it.

    They are observed simply for steadying and purifying it. It is said: 'As a Brahmana (a yogi who desires to know Brahma) goes on desiring to adopt many vows he goes on turning away from the sins, committed through carelessness, which spring from the root of injury and goes on practicing the steady and pure kind of non-injury. Truthfulness is that in which there is complete

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    agreement between speech and mind. The speech and the mind should be in accord with what has been seen, inferred and heard. The use of speech is to convey to another one's own knowledge. It is truthfulness if it is free from guile, does not cause misapprehension and is not meaningless and is employed for the good, but not for the injury, of all beings.

    If the speech that is uttered is for injury of living beings it is not truthful but sinful. Such a speech is only seemingly virtuous and wears the outward form of virtue. It will surely lead to the direst misery. One should, therefore, speak that truth which is beneficial for all beings after one has tested it.

    Theft is to take objects belonging to others by unlawful means. Non-stealing is abstinence from theft. Theft may even consist in mere desire (to obtain another's property). Continence (Brahmacharya) is the control of the generative organs. Non-covetousness is to renounce the objects of pleasure with the consciousness that their collection, preservation and destruction involve injury

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    These are yamas.

    The following aphorisms (dealing with the niyamas -observances) will be explained in the vernacular.

    'Cleanliness, contentment, austerity, self-study and contemplation of God are the observances (niyamas).' I.232. Cleanliness is either external or internal. External cleanliness should be accomplished by means of water, etc. and internal by renouncing attachment, hatred, untruth, etc. One should acquire contentment, tranquility, by the practice of virtue (Dharma). Austerity is to always act in accordance with the dictates of duty (Dharma). Self-study is

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    the reading and the teaching of the rue Shastras, the Vedas and others, or to repeat the Pranava (Om) as a means of contemplation of God and surrender all things to the Great Teacher, the Supreme Lord. These five niyamas are the secondary limbs of worship. The fruit if non-injury is that 'when one is established in (the habit of) non-injury enmity is given up in one's presence.' I.2.35.

    The fruit if truthful conduct is that 'when one is established in non-stealing all jewels approach one.' I.2.37. As to what is obtained by the practice of the life of Brahmacharya it is said that ' when one is established in Brahmacharya one acquires power.' I.2.38.

    The fruit of non-covetousness is said to be that 'when one is established in non-covetousness one know the cause (the how and the why) of one's birth.'I.2.39. The fruit of the practice of cleanliness is that 'by cleanliness one acquires a dislike for one's own body and absence of contact with others.' I.2.40. (By cleanliness are also

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    acquired) purity of intellect, calmness of mind, concentration, victory over the senses and fitness for knowledge of the self.' I.2.41.'By contentment one obtains results destruction of impurity and then one obtains the highest happiness.'I.2.42. 'By austerity results destruction of impurity and the one obtains the siddhis (accomplishments) of the body and the senses.' I.2.43. 'By self-study is obtained the communion with the beloved devas.' I.2.44. 'By contemplation of God the state of absorption is reached.' I.2.45.
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    "Posture is that in which one is steady and at ease.' I.2.46. The postures are Padmasana, Virasana, Bhardrasana, Svastika, Dandasana, Sopashraya, Paryanka, Hastinishadana, Ushtranishadana, Krounchanishadana, Samasansthana, sthirasukha, Yathasukha, etc. One may adopt the postures Padmasana, etc., or any other according to one's choice. 'By that (posture) there results absence of the blows of the pairs of opposites.I.2.48.

    By controlling the posture one is not overpowered by the pairs of opposites such as heat and cold, etc. 'On being acquired the breath is regulated, i.e., the movements of the in-breathing and the out-breathing are checked I.2.49. In-breathing is the taking of the external air into the body. Out-breathing is the throwing out of the air from within the body.

    Regulation of breath is the absence of the movements of both these. This follows the control of posture. When posture has been fully brought under control one is able to regulate the breath, i.e., to get the mastery over the air that goes into, and comes out of the body by skilful and gradual exercise, (in other words)

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    to bring about the cessation of the movements of air by making it motionless and still. 'And that, (control of breath) being external, internal or totally restrained, is regulated by place, time and number and is long and short.' I.2.50.

    External Pranayama is that in which the cessation of movement follows in-breathing and he third, the totally restrained, is that in which both movements are checked. That is acquired by exercise. As a drop of water thrown on a heated stone shrinks from all sides simultaneously so in this (Pranayama) there is cessation of both movements at one and the same time.

    They are men of childlike (immature) intellect who practice regulation of breath by stopping their nostrils with the finger and the thumb. This should be avoided by the wise. At the time of performing Pranayama one should keep one's internal and external parts of the body unagitated and relaxed. When all the limbs are as they ought to be one should perform the first or the external Pranayama by keeping

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    the air that has been breathed out outside the body as long as one can; the second or the internal Pranayama by retaining in the body the air that has been taken in as long as one can and the third or the 'totally restrained' by restraining both movements simultaneously with the help of the performance of the two - the internal and the external.

    'The fourth follows when the domains of the external and the internal have been crossed over. I.2.51. - That Pranayama which crosses both (the internal and the external) is called the fourth. It is as follows. When the air within the stomach tries to go out into the outer space at the first moment one should fix one's attention on it and should eject the breath into the outer space and stop it there.

    Similarly, when the air from the outer space tries toe enter the body at the first moment one should receive it into the body as gradually as one can and should stop it there. This is the second Pranayama. When the movements of both are stopped gradually and by constant practice we have the fourth Pranayama.The third Pranayama, however, does not depend upon the

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    practice of the internal and the external Pranayama. In it the breath is stopped in whatever region it happens to be at the moment. In it one should act like a person who is startled at the sight of a wonderful object.

    'Thence is destroyed the veil over light' I.1.52. In this way by the practice of Pranayama is destroyed the veil of ignorance over true discrimination concealing the light of the indwelling ruler God. 'And the ability of the mind in concentration' I.2.53. The mind of the worshipper acquires complete ability to fix itself in the contemplation of God by the performance of Pranayama.

    What is abstraction? 'Abstraction is that in which the senses become detached from their objects and follow the nature of the thinking principle, as it were.' I.2.54. When the thinking principle is brought under control it does not wander form the contemplation and protection of God to other objects. This is the restraint of the senses. It is to be understood that as the thinking principle becomes fixed in the essence of God so the senses also

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    are brought under restraint, i.e., the senses and all other objects are brought under control when the thinking principle is controlled.

    'Thence the complete control over the senses' I. 2. 55. After this the senses are completely brought under control, i.e., they are restrained from their objects so that whenever the devotee proceeds to worship God he is able to restrain his thinking principle and his senses.

    'Concentration of the thinking principle is the fixing of it on a particular point.' I.3.1. Concentration is the fixing of the activity of the thinking principle on the navel plexus, the lotus of the heart, the aperture in the crown of the head, the tip of the nose, the tip of the tongue, etc. or on some external object.

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    "Meditation is the uniformity of knowledge in concentration I.3.2. Meditation is that in which there is a similar (uniform) flow of the 'knowledge of that which has been adopted as the support of the object of meditation in that locality (desha) and which is not touched by dissimilar knowledge. 'The same (meditation) when shining with the light of the object alone and devoid, as it were, of its own form is absorption (Samadhi).' I.3.3.

    The distinction between meditation and absorption is this that in meditation activity of the mind is present in the shape of the mediator, the act of meditation and the object of meditation but in absorption the mind becomes devoid, as it were, of is own form and becomes absorbed in the Divine essence and its beatitude. 'The three (concentration), meditation and absorption) together are called SamyanaI.3.4. The

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    three, concentration, meditation and absorption brought together are called Samyama. These three are the means towards the same end are jointly called Samyama, which is the technical term of all the three. It is the ninth limb of worship.
    Upanishad texts on Worship
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    A man cannot attain to Him by knowledge if he has not detached himself from evil deeds, is not calm and his mind is not collected and tranquil.' Kathavalli II.24. 'Those who possess faith and practice austerities in forests, living on alms and are calm and learned and free from impurities go, through the gate of the sun (Pranayama), there where dwells the immortal Purusha whose nature is immutable.' Mund, II. 1-2-11. 'There in this city of Brahman is a cavity in which is a lotus-like space. In it ther is subtle ether. Now that is to be sought for and known which exists in that subtle ether. If it be asked: 'Well, there is the city of Brahman (the human body) and in it there is a cavity in which there is a lotus like space and in it there is subtle ether, but what is
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    there in that subtle ether which is to be sought for the known.' To this one may reply: 'The ether within the heart is as large as this ether. In it are placed both the heavens and the earth, both fire and air, both the sun and the moon, lightning and the constellations and whatever else there is here (in this world) besides these, and also whatever is not here.'

    And if asked: 'If in the city of Brahman are placed the whole world and all creatures and all desirable objects what subsists there when this body becomes old and dies.' This one may reply: 'That (Brahman within the body) does not become old when the body becomes old, that does not die when the body dies.

    It is everlasting city of Brahman. In it are contained the desirable objects. It is the self free from sin., old age, death, sorrow, hunger and thirst, of true desires and of true resolves. As here, in this world, people act as they are commanded and depend on the objects to which they are attached, be it a country or a piece of field, (so the devotees attain what they desire). Chhandogya VIII. 1-2-3-4-5. The purport of the above texts

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    shall explained in the vernacular.
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    Worship of God is of two kinds, viz., Saguna (with qualities) and Nirguna (without qualities). In the verse Saparyagachchhukramakayam (Yajur Veda XI. 8. the words Shukra (Almighty) Shuddham (pure) denote worship of God as possessor of qualities and the words Akayam (without body) Avranam (without muscles, arteries, etc.) etc., denote worship of God, as devoid of qualities.

    Similarly in the verse: 'God is one, He is hidden in all creatures, is all-pervading and is the inmost self of all creatures. He is the ruler of all, the support and abode of all. He is the witness (of all). He is the Absolute and devoid of qualities.' The words 'God is one, etc., denote worship with qualities and the words 'devoid of qualities.' Denote worship without qualities.

    God possesses qualities because He has the attributes of omniscience, etc. He is devoid of qualities because He is free from pain such as ignorance, etc., from quantity, such as measurements, numbers, two, etc., and form such qualities as sound, touch, color, taste and smell. When God is thought of as all-pervading, the ruler of all, the master of all, consciousness itself we worship Him as the possessor of qualities.

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    When we say God is unborn, without holes, without form, and without body, and He does not possess the attributes of color, taste, smell, touch, number, measure we worship Him as devoid of qualities. The opinion that when God assumes a body He becomes the possessor of qualities and that when He leaves the body He becomes devoid of qualities is a false assumption of the ignorant. It is opposed to the scriptures of the Vedas, etc., to the proofs and to the experience of the learned. Good men should, therefore, always reject it as a futile assumption.
    On Emancipation
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    The Jiva obtains emancipation by worshipping God in the manner mentioned above, removing nescience and sinful acts, and by developing pure knowledge and righteous conduct.

    Yoga aphorisms on emancipation.
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    'Nescience, egoism, attachment, aversion and fear of death are the five afflictions.
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    Nescience is the field (i.e., the birth-place0 of those that follow it (in the above enumeration) whether they be dormant, dwarfed, neutralized for the time being by another affliction, or active.'

    'Nescience is to take the non-eternal as eternal, the impure as pure, pain as pleasure and not-self as self.'

    'Egoism is the identification of the seer and the power of seeing.'

    'Attachment is the attraction towards a pleasure which one has once experienced.'

    'Aversion is the repulsion from a pain which one has once experienced.'

    'Flowing by its own potency and established even in the learned is the fear of death.' Yoga I.2.3 -9.

    'From the disappearance of that i.e., Nescience, results the disappearance of the conjunction (of the seer and the seen) and then results Absolute Freedom.' I.2.25.

    'Absolute freedom results also from the non-attachment to the Siddhis (perfections) on

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    the destruction of the seeds of defects. I.3.48.

    'Absolute freedom results when the purity of the Satwa (intellect) is equal to the purity of the purusha.' I.3.53.

    'Then the thinking principle leans towards discrimination and moves towards absolute freedom.' I.4.53.

    'Then the thinking principle leans towards absolute freedom.' I.4.26.

    'Absolute freedom results when the qualities, becoming devoid of the objects of the purusha (i.e. the attainment of fruits) cease to be born and the power of consciousness is established in its own nature. I.4. 34.

    Nyaya Aphorism on Emancipation.
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    Emancipation results when among pain, birth, worldly activities, defects and false knowledge, the destruction of that which follows leads to the destruction of that which precedes.' The characteristic of pain is that it is painful. 'Emancipation is complete freedom from pain' Nyaya. I.1.2 and 21, 23.
    Vedanta Texts.
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    "Badari says: "There is absence (of the body in the state of emancipation) because it is so (declared by the Scripture)'; 'Jaimini says: "There
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    is presence (of the body) because it is declared that an emancipated soul can optionally assume a body.' 'Therefore, the son of Badari says there are both (presence and absence of body) as in the twelve days' yajna (prescribed for a Vanaprastha) hunger is present as well as absent, because the performer of the yajna is not allowed to have full meals and hence it cannot be said that he is hungry, nor that he is not hungry. Nyaya IV.4.10,11,12.

    "They call that the highest state in which the five senses of cognition together with the mind stand still and the intellect goes not act perversely.'

    'They believe that the firm holding of the senses is yoga. Then (in yoga) he (yogi) becomes free from carelessness. Yoga comes into existence and goes out of it (i.e., it brings into light the good and destroys the bad qualities).'

    'When all the desires residing i his heart are destroyed then the mortal becomes immortal and enjoys (the presence of) Brahma.'

    "When all the ties of his heart are here cut asunder, the mortal becomes immortal

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    This much is the teaching.' Katha. VI 10,11,14 & 15.

    'He (the emancipated soul) seeing these pleasures with the divine eye, i.e., the mind, rejoices.'

    The Jivas who are in the world of Brahman (i.e., state of emancipation) hold communion with that Self. Therefore, all worlds belong to them and all desires. He, who knows that Self and understands it, obtains all worlds and all desires. So said Prajapaati; so said Prajapati

    'He is the pervader. He is Brahman, Heis immortal and he indwelling soul (of all). (The emancipated soul longs) 'May I enter the assembly hall of Prajapati, may I become glory, glory of the Brahmanas, glory of the Kshatriyas, glory of the Vaishyas and the glory of glory itself' Chhandogya. VIII.

    'The path (to salvation) is narrow and ancient. It is a bridge (for crossing the river of life and death). It has been reached and found by me.' The wise, who know Brahman, after their release from here, cross over to the world

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    of joy and even to regions beyond it by that (path).'

    'On that, they say, there is white, blue, yellow, green and red. This path was found by Brahma. By it goes he, who knows Brahman, who is the doer of good (deeds), and who is full of splendor.'

    'They who knew the He (Brahma) is the life of the life, the eye of the eye, the ear of the ear, the food of the food, the mind of the mind, reached the ancient, primeval Brahma who can be known through the mind only.'

    'There is no diversity in Him.' 'He who perceives any diversity in Him goes from death to death. This eternal (being), who cannot be apprehended (otherwise than) through the mind is free from impurity, subtler than Akasha (ether), the unborn, the pervader, great and eternal. Let a wise Brahmana practice wisdom after knowing Him. Shatapatha VIV.7.

    'He (Yajnavalkya) said; 'O Gargi, this is the Imperishable, whom the Brahmana describe as one who is neither gross, nor subtle, nor short, nor long, nor red, nor fluid. He is

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    without shadow, without darkness, without air, without ether, without attachment, without touch, without smell, without taste, without eyes, without ears, without speech, without mind, without light, without breath, without mouth, without name, without partronymic, without old age, without death, without fear.

    He is immoral, without impurity, without word, having no within, no without. There is nothing that was before Him, he is neither that shall be after Him. He is neither open nor closed. He eats no one and no one eats Him.' Shatapatha XIV. 6.

    The Jiva can become happy for ever by attaining to the Supreme Brahman, who is attainable by the emancipated, who is emancipation itself and whose attributes are all-consciousness, all-existence and all-bliss.

    Vedid Texts.
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    The emancipated souls live in the bliss of emancipation, performing the Yajna of knowledge and surrendering their selves, etc., to God by way of the fee of that yajna. All the joys are meant for them who by the friendship
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    of God have obtained emancipation. Their Pranas help in the full development of their intellects. The other emancipated souls who have obtained emancipation previous to them admit them into their blissful society and then all of them associate together and see them with loving eyes of knowledge.' Rigveda. VIII. 2.1.

    'God is our brother, i.e., the destroyer of our afflictions, the generator of all happiness, our protector. He is the fulfiller of all under takings and the knower of all worlds. In Him do the learned live in bliss after obtaining emancipation and dwelling in the third place, i.e., the highest bliss, they ever roam in it freely, accompanied with pure intellect." Yaju XXXII. 10.

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    The texts beginning with Yoga I. 2-3 and
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    ending with Yaju XXXII 10 describe the
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    state of emancipation. They have been explained in the vernacular.*
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"The man who resolves, to stick to the truth at all costs, steadily rises in virtues. When his virtues raise his reputation and prestige, he becomes all the more a devotee of truth. This devotion to truth becomes an unerring source of power and greatness." Swami Dayanand
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