To understand the true meaning of this book you must apply the
The four subsidiary means of reasoning:
- Listening or reading most attentively with a calm mind to the lectures of a learned man, and more so if the subjects are a divine Science, because it is the most abstruse and the subtlest of all the sciences.
- Thinking over what one has heard or read in retirement, and in removing doubts if there be any by questioning the speaker. Questions may sometimes be asked even in the middle of a discourse if the speaker and the audience think proper.
- Rationalizing is the next step.
When all doubts are cleared after hearing or reading a discourse and
thinking over it, let the enquirer enter into the superior condition and
see for himself by the help of yoga (self-realization through meditation)
whether it is the same as he had heard and reasoned out or not.
- The result is the correct
knowledge of the nature, properties and characteristics of the desired
THE PRESS ON KASHI SHASTRARTH
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The shastrarth at Kashi was an event of the greatest importance, and created a profound sensation through out the country. The utter incapacity of the most famous Benares Pandits to cope with Swami Dayanand in learning and argument, and the unrighteous course which they had finally adopted to overcome him and to wipe out their disgrace, were duly noticed by the Press in every part of India and freely commented upon.
THE HINDU COMMENTATOR
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We shall have to content ourselves with quoting the remarks of only a few of the papers. The Hindu Commentator, a Sanskrit journal of Calcutta, whose editor was present at the discussion and took notes, wrote, as follows, in tis issue of December, 1869 :-
"Swami Dayanand is a Sadhu, who has girded up his loins to destroy falsehood by the dissemination of truth.
Swami Dayanand (S.D) : Do Indra and other devatas (Gods) exist in heaven (swarga)?
Swami Vishuddhanand (S.V.) : The very mantras of the Vedas are devtas.*
(At this answer the Maharaja of Kashi frowned)
S.D. : How is worship to be done, then?
S.V. : Through the image of Shaligram, etc.
S.D. : Where is this written in the Vedas?
S.V. : The Sama Veda alone has a thousand shakhas. Have your read them all?
S.D. : Listen! Listen! The thousand shakhas mean nothing more than that the Veda can be interpreted in a thousand ways. The Samhita is one and one only.
*When Swami Vishuddhanand called the mantras, devatas, the Maharaja at once perceived that a condemnation of idolatry had come from his own Pandits, at which he was surprised and frowned, and when, afterwards Vishuddhanand replied that the worship could be done by means of the Shaligram, the chief was still more surprised.
S.V. : Yes, even that or space is God.*
S.D. : (With a smile) - That is the Ishwara! But of that which is irrelevant, it is utterly useless to talk here. The discussion here is on idol-worship. In support of that you must cite authorities.
S.V. : (Placing his hand on the Swami's back) - Mendicant, thou has not finished thy education yet; study yet awhile.
S.D. : (Removing his hand) - Has thou read everything?
S.V. :(With a sarcastic laugh) - Yes, I have read everything.
S.D. : (Looking him full in the face) - Vyakarna also?
S.V. : Yes, that also.
S.D. : (Sternly) - What is the Kalma Sangya (retained object)? (In a voice of thunder) - The answer, answer!
"When Vishuddhanand could make no reply to this, Bal Shastri, who could not but see that the honor of Kashi was at stake, and that utter disgrace would be the portion of the orthodox Pandits (if the question remained unanswered), came forward to save his great Pandit Vishuddanand and said: 'I shall reply to this.' The Swami replied: 'Do you explain what the Kalma sangya is'? Bal Shastri replied that the definition hand not been given, but that the commentator had, in a certain sutra, treated it as uphas (jest or something too insignificant to take notice of.). Upon this, the Swami said: 'In the commentary upon what Sutra has the definition not been given, and the uphas only been indulged in? Illustrate your answer by examples.' Upon this Bal Shastri and the other Pandits also said nothing and preserved silence.
"The Maharaja of Kashi heard the shastrarth from beginning to end, and was not at all satisfied. And upon this, he thus spoke "Although Dayanand is stubborn and ignorant, yet no one Pandit can defeat him in any way. He is like Karna, who six warriors, joining together, fell to the ground. When no strength remained in him, he fell. Hear more. This discussion does not end by merely defeating Dayanand. Let all the Pandits join together and discuss, and having prepared a book containing the arguments for and against idolatry, publish it."
"Shri Hari Krishn Vyas, Shri Jainarian Tarak Panchanan, Shri Krishn Vedant Saraswati, etc., who were present and were counted among the learned, observed that the shastrarth had not been satisfactorily conducted, though it was true that Dayanand had been defeated!"
*Mark, how he shifts from the point. He leaves the subject under discussion, and, instead of furnishing proofs in support of idol-worship, begins to talk about he revealed the character of the Vedas. Swami Dayanand having answered his questions once or twice interrupted him by the remark that he was violating his pledge and becoming irrelevant, a procedure not in keeping with the approved rules of shastrarth. Vishudhanand, asking what the connection was between the Vedas and Ishwara, Swami Dayanand replied, the connection of cause and effect. To this Vishuddhanand replied hat the assertion of such a connection meant the declaration of the non-existence of the Vedas. Dayanand answered, "If nothing can exist in God, how can anything have a relation with or exist in space?" Upon this Vishuddhanand spoke, "Even space is God." Excellent!
The Tattva Bodhni of Calcutta wrote in its issue for 1794 Shalvahan:-
"Thanks to the efforts of the Ruler of Kashi, the Pandits from different places held a shastrarth with the object of refuting the contention above specified, but from the perusal of the pamphlet (Sattya Dharma Vichar) it appears that no Pandit could defeat the Swami by proving idolatry justifiable. For this reason, the Swami ought to be regarded as the greatest Pandits of the Vedas."
Again, in its issue for Aswaj, 1794, Shalvahan it wrote: "At this time Swami Dayanand Saraswati, a Veda-knowing Pandit, going into Kashi, etc., proclaimed that the Vedas did not enjoin idolatry. Upon this, a grand meeting of the Kashi Pandits and of Pandits from other places was held under the auspices of the Ruler of Kashi, but not a single Pandit could produce authority in support of idol-worship from the Vedas."
The Rohilkhand Akhbar wrote in November, 1869 :-
"Dayanand Saraswati Swami obtained a victory over the Benares Pandits, and the Benares Pandits falsely gave out that they had been victorious."
The Gyan Pradinst Patrika of Lahore wrote in April, 1870 :-
"It is apparent from what both parties said that the shastrarth between the Kashi Pandits and the Sanyasi was mostly on subjects perfectly irrelevant, but there can be no doubt that, when discussing the subject of idolatry, the Pandits could not prove it on the authority of the Vedas."
THE "HINDU PATRIOT' ON THE SHASTRARTH
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The Hindu Patriot of 17th January 1870, had the following in connection with the shastrarth :-
"The stronghold of Hindu idolatry and bigotry which, according to Hindu mythology, stands on the trend of Shiva, and is therefore not liable to the influence of earthquakes, has lately been shaken to its foundation by the appearance of a sage from Guzerat, the name of this great personage is Dayanand Sarawati. He has come with the vowed object of giving a death-blow to the system of Hindu worship. "He considers the Vedas to be the only religious books worthy of regard and styles the Puranas as cunningly-devised fables - the inventions of some shrewd Brahmans in the later period for the subservience of their selfish motives.
"The Vedas, says he, entirely ignore idol-worship, and he challenges the Pandits and great men of Benares to meet him in an argument. A curious and protracted logomachi took place between Dayanand Saraswati and the Pandits, but the latter, notwithstanding their boasted learning and deep insight into the Shastras, met with a signal discomfiture. Finding it impossible to overcome the great man by a regular discussion, the Pandits resorted to the adoption of a sinister course to sub-serve their purpose. They made over to the sage an extract
from the Puranas that savored of idolatry, and handed it over to the Saraswati, saying that it is a text from the Vedas. The latter was pondering over it, when the host of Pandits, headed by the Maharaja himself, clapped their hands, signifying the defeat of the great Pandit in the religious warfare. Though mortified greatly at the unmanly conduct and bad treatment of the Maharaja, Dayanand Swami has not lost courage. He is still waging the religious contest with more earnestness than ever. He has the shield of truth to protect him, and his banner of victory is waved in the air."
"The Pandit has lately published a pamphlet, entitled the Sattya Dharma Vichar, containing particulars of the religious contest above alluded to, had has issued a circular calling on the Pandits of Benares to show the part of the Vedas which sanctions idol-worship. No one has ventured to make his appearance."
"Hearing the great fame of the sage, we made up our minds to pay him a visit, and accordingly went to Anandbag, near Durga Vati in Benares, in which romantic garden he has taken up his temporary residence. The Rishi-like appearance of the venerable Pandit, his cheerful countenance and child-like simplicity, made on our minds an impression never to be effaced. When he began to speak, manna dropped from his lips, and the wise instructions he gave us forces us to the conviction that the golden age of India has not altogether disappeared."
"The great Pandit after 18 years of research into the Vedas has come to the conclusion that they do not savor of idolatry at all, and with the view of resuscitation the Vedic religion of the ancient sages of India, he has come out on his mission of religious reformation. He has bid adieu to all worldly enjoyments, he has assumed the austerities of an anchorite, and is buoyant with the hope of regenerating Hinduism and securing a lasting boon for his countrymen. With the view of promulgating correct theistic doctrines and dispelling the misunderstanding of the present Sanyasis and Pandits who hold pantheism to be the main doctrine of the Vedas, he is now appealing to his educated and enlightened brethren to establish a Vedic school, the teachership* of which he will most gladly accept.**
THE "CHRISTIAN INTELLIGENCER", BENARES, ON THE SHASTRATH
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"The fame of the reformer, who later put the whole city of Benares in commotion, seems to have gone abroad. Some account, therefore, of him and his views and the public disputation held with him, from one who was present at the disputation, and met and conversed with the reformer several times before and after that event, will perhaps be not uninteresting to the reader of the Intelligencer.
"The name of the reformer is Dayanand Saraswati Swami. He is a native of some village in Guzarat. He is a fine-looking man, large and well-proportioned; his face, especially, expressive of
*The gentleman, no doubt, meant 'supervision' or 'superintendence.'
**From a Correspondent.
much intelligence. His outward appearance is that of a Sanyasi or a religious beggar, almost entirely naked. He speaks Sanskrit fluently, never stopping while speaking, though his Sanskrit is not of the polished kind and often not even correct. He is good reasoner, and pretty fair in controversy, at least so far that he generally allows his opponent to state his case without interruption; but extremely authoritative in all his positions. His case and mind is made up, and believing his acquaintance with the Vedas to be superior to that of any of his adversaries, he will listen with a kind of contemptuous courtesy to anything that they may have to bring forward, and often, especially in the case of inferior Pandits, only answers, by authoritative assertions, to the contrary."
"He is well-versed in the Vedas. He has devoted himself entirely to the study of the Vedas from his eleventh year, and thus he is more practically conversant with them than most, if not all, of the great Pandits of Benares, who only know them second hand or even less. At any rate, and this is the most remarkable feature distinguishing from other Pandits, he is an independent student of the Vedas, and free from the trammels of traditional interpretation. The standard commentary of the famous Sayanacharya is held of little account by him. It can be no wonder, therefore, that his Vedic studies conducted in that spirit led him to the conviction that almost the whole of the comparatively modern Hinduism is an inactive and irreconcilable contradiction with the Vedas.
"Being an active character, he determined not to keep his conviction to himself but to impart it to his country-men, and to try and effect an entire reform of the Hindu society. Briefly, his object is to place the Hindu society exactly in the state it was in two thousand years ago, that is, at the time when there existed none of the present Six schools of Philosophy, and not one of the eighteen Puranas, the source of modern Hinduism with its caste and idolatry, when the Vedas and the Vedic religion alone were in the ascendant, when one God only was adored, and the Vedas only were studied, and the sacrifice of homa only was, with all the attendant rites, performed by the Brahmans - for themselves, the Kshatriyas and Vaishyas. At least is the fond ambition of this reformer.
"But history is a stranger to such changes. No community or nation, especially on like the Hindu, will attempt or desire to attempt, to step back into the state in which it was two thousand years back. It is, however, not improbable that his efforts may pave the way of another reform, and it's not impossible that he may succeed in convincing the Hindus that their existing religions are entirely at variance with the teachings of the Vedas.
"Of this fact, the generality of the Hindus are totally ignorant, and the few who are conscious of it, or who have come to suspect the reality, think it safest to preserve silence on the point. If they are once convinced of the fundamental error, there is not the slightest doubt that they will at once give up the Hindu Religion. For their faith in the prevailing Hindu Religion is the result of a conviction on their part that the religion has been so from ancient times - that it is
the religion of their remote ancestors, who, it is believed, were directly inspired by God. The Vedic period cannot be brought back, it is dead and gone, it cannot be resuscitated. The conditions, which may now be brought about, must be different, more or less. We have hopes that the Christian Religion will now spread. At all events, the religion that will now spread will be identical with something superior to the present idolatry and the restrictions of caste. I must, however, declare that I am not sure whether this reformer's efforts in the interest of reform will be successful even so far. He travels up and down the banks of the Ganges, and stops here and there in the larger towns to disseminate his views; but, as far as I could ascertain, he seems to have met nowhere with much success except at Farrukhabad, near Kanpur, where, indeed, the report is to be trusted, his success has been complete.
"The Brahmans of that place in a body are said to have declared for him and to have cleared the temples of all idols. It is certain that a very rich Maharajan of that place had become a convert to his views, and has established a school where reformed Hinduism is taught. It is not unlikely that perceiving the extent of his influence, all those poor Brahmans should have become his followers, who get their living from him. This seems to be the fact and anything more we are told is probably an exaggeration.
"His arrival at Benares was, in reality a failure. The excitement which his arrival here produced at first was prodigious, but it has largely subsided, though it still prevails among many to a certain extent. If the people of our mission were to act wisely on the present occasion, and some secret help was given to the movement of this reformer, it is not improbable that what his previous attempts have been unable to achieve, maybe accomplished now.
"The date of his arrival at Benares, I do not know. It must have been at the beginning of October, I was then absent. I first saw him after my return in November. I went to see him after my return in November. I went to see in company with the Prince of Bharatpur and one or two Pandits. The excitement was then at its height. The whole of the Brahmanic and educated population of Benares seemed to flock to him.
"In the verandah of a small house at the end of a large garden near the monkey-tank, he was holding daily levees, for a continuous stream of people who came, eager to see and listen to, or dispute with, the novel reformer. It does not appear, however, that the heads of the orthodox party or the Pandits for the greatest repute ever visited him, unless they did it secretly. The intensity of the excitement at last induced the Raja of Benares, in concert with his Court Pandits and other men of influence, to take some notice of the reformer, and to arrange a public disputation with him and the orthodox party, in order to allay the excitement by a defeat of the reformer. But I fear there was a determination from the beginning that they would win the day by any means, whether foul or fair.
"The disputation took place on the 17th of November, in the place where the reformer was putting up. It lasted from 3 to 7 P.M. The Raja himself was present and presided. The great Vedantist,
the leader of the party of the Pandits, - I mean Vishuddhananda Gaur Swami, who is said never to have left his retreat before, came out from his place on the bank of the Ganges, to assist the Hindus with his erudition and to urge them on to victory. This shows how greatly the reformer was feared by these people. All the famous Pandits present, and other people were on the spot in crowds. A posse of the Police was also in attendance, guarding the entrance and taking the necessary precautions against a rush inside. The Police have a suspicion, were also keeping an eye on the powerful opponents surrounding the Sadhu, to prevent their dealing with him in a high-handed fashion. But there was no disturbance, and the proceedings terminated peacefully, except that at the last, when the meeting broke up, the Hindu party gave a should indicative of their unfairly-acquired victory.
"This victory, gained by means, fair or foul, accomplished the object they had in view, the excitement subsided as rapidly as it had risen. The people who formerly flocked to Dayanand in crowds now commenced to visit him in numbers which could easily be counted. The reformer came, as it were, to be outcasted, the orthodox Pandits threatening to excommunicate anyone who should dare to visit him henceforward. Shortly after the discussion in question, the reformer sent a written answer to his opponents, but nobody took any notice of it.
"A month after this he had a pamphlet, containing his teaching, published, and called upon his adversaries to furnish an immediate reply. The Hindus still declined to answer. Nevertheless, the reformer stayed where he was till the end of January, 1870. after that he left Benares for Allahabad, to be present there at the approaching fair and to preach to the people who might attend it. When, after that, I last saw him, he had not yet decided whether, on the termination of the fair, he would go to Benares or somewhere else. When the reformer had left the place, the Hindu party had an account of the discussion published, mentioning therein the points of dispute.
"The teachings of the reformer can be put under there heads:-
- Those concerned with the Hindu Dharma Shastras;
Connected with these there are many other minor points. His views as to the teaching of the Shastras are at the bottom of his entire scheme of reform. The following books only he believes in as authoritative:-
- Those, with the origin of idolatry;
- Those, with the Puranas and the Caste-question.
Of these he believes in the Vedas because they are the word of God, and in the others because they are founded on the Vedas, or make a particular mention of the same. The remaining books, elevated to the position of "Shastras" by the Puran Hindus, as, for instance, the six Darshans and the eighteen Puranas, he regards as of minor importance, for their contents are either opposed to the teaching of the Vedas, or they are silent as regards their supreme authority. Taking his stand on this principle he refutes everything in the Hindu creed that is either
- The four Vedas
- The four Upavedas
- The six Vedangas
- The twelve Upanishads
- TheSharirak Sutras
- The Katyana Sutras
- The Yoga Bhashya (Vakavak)
- The Manu Smriti
- The Mahabharata
clearly antagonistic to the Vedic teaching, or that does not find support in the Vedas. From this statement it will be evident that he does not differ with the Puranic Pandits as regards the dictum of the Shastras - that the Vedas are the supreme authority and that whatever is opposed to them is false. The point at issue really is, what are the Vedas? Dayanand believes in the existing Vedas only, that is, in the Samhita or in whatever may be shown to be right on the authority of the same. The other Pandits, on the contrary, believe and maintain that originally there existed many other Vedic works, now no longer available, which supported every Hindu Shastra and everything Hindu not countenanced by the existing Vedas. But this very hard to prove, though certain English scholars of Sanskrit declare that the Pandits are in the right.
"Max Muller is one of these. What he says, stated briefly, is this: 'The lost Vedas were first mentioned in the discussions of the Buddhists, to prove some of the Brahmanas as parts of the Vedas. It is not easy to prove the theory. It may have been put forward (by the Brahmans) as something convenient to back up their contention with. It is dangerous argument, however, though it is though the Brahmans would never have advanced it if they hand not regarded it as sound.'
"I am inclined to think, however, that Max Muller is not right in his argument. In as much as many things did not find support in the existing Vedas, the Brahmans (Pandits) had no alternative but either admit that such-and-such thing was not allowed by the Vedas, a suicidal admission on their part, or to assert that originally other Vedas existed, though the declaration may or may not have any foundation. The latter assertion might render their position still more critical, yet there could be no doubt as to which of the two alternatives they would prefer. Dayanand wholly denies that the Vedas were ever lost. What part maybe their a real fact, it will be evident to an import enquirer that if any other Vedas originally existed their general import would be the same as that of existing ones, and they could not be in any way favorable to the present Hindu Faith.
- "Idolatry and the Puranas:- Dayanand utterly condemns idolatry not because it is the harmless error but because it is a positive sign. He is opposed to the worship of gods or polytheism. He believes in one only God, and in those attributes of His only which commonly begged in by theists. His God is primarily the creator of the Vedas and then of the universe. Hence the Vedas, compared to the universe, are everlasting, though compared to God they are non-eternal. In the Vedas God is spoken as Atma, Agni, etc. according to the different Divine attributes, God, though distinct from the world for Dayanand does not believe in the Vedantic doctrine, that everything is God, yet pervades and permeates it as the principle of life. To illustrate Dayanand's position: God is believed in as Agni because Agni means life, and consequently He is worshipped through Agni (fire). To avoid misapprehension it must be distinctly understood that when he says that God is the universe is Agni, by Agni he does not mean fire, but that something which stands for Spirit and Life. Again
he does not mean that this ordinary fire represents the Divine form or is a Divine representative, but only this, that it pre-eminently reveals His glory presence, and that, being such a manifester of Divine glory, God can be very well worshipped through it. The Agni itself should not be worshipped but should be used only as a medium of His worship. The worship of God consists primarily in these three things:-
By doing these there things salvation may be attained. There never was an incarnation (of the Deity) for man's salvation, nor can there ever be one. Such a thing is opposed to the attributes of the Deity. Thus Dayanand condemns Hindu incarnations as thoroughly as he does the Christian incarnation. In other words, he has no faith whatever in Divine incarnation. And if there were ever any incarnations, these were those of the sages and saints (devtas) and not of God. Consequently, the reformer runs down nearly all the Puranic stories or legends, and especially the lila of Krishna.
- Studying the Vedas, for the acquisition of Divine Knowledge.
- Obeying Moral laws as the commandments of God.
- Adoring the divinity through the Agnihotra, etc.
THE CASTE SYSTEM
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"Caste, etc. - This reformer looks upon caste as a merely political (civil) institution, established by the rulers of the times for the convenience and comfort of their subjects, and not as a natural or religious mark. It is not a natural mark or symbol, inasmuch, as God did not create the four castes as four distinct kinds of men; on the contrary, all human beings are the same in their general and species, and it is not a religious mark inasmuch as the salvation and the destiny of men in the world to come do not depend on caste.
"The castes are merely different professions or privileges, and were organized by those in power to prevent confusion, and for the better discharge of the duties of different kinds . Certain persons, specially fitted for the purpose, were chosen by Royalty for conducting worship and for the cultivation of moral science and philosophy, and these were named Brahmans. Others were constituted Kshatryas, to guard the empire against external danger and to preserve internal order; the Vaishya class was organized for trade and commerce and for agriculture, while the people that yet remained were put into the Shudra order, to serve all.
"Every caste was granted privileges of a distinct nature, and they were made hereditary. But inasmuch as all these divisions were made and fixed by Royalty. Royalty alone can elevate, to the position of a Vaishya or Kshatriya or a Brahman, any Shudra that may be deemed worthy of the promotion. Similarly, one who deserves to be degraded may be degraded to the position of a Shudra by Royalty. To be brief, every Brahman, who is incompetent to perform the duties of a Brahman, falls at once to the level of Shudra, and every Shudra that acquires worth and excellence may rise to be a Brahman. The individual concerned, however, has no power to make the change in his status; the Royalty alone will do it for
him. The last-named condition renders the reformer's theory impracticable. Government, in these days, has nothing to do with the regulation of privileges of this nature. In other words, it should be the concern of the biradari itself to degrade an immoral Brahman to the level of a Shudra, and to exalt a good and intelligent Shudra to the position of a Brahman."The discussion commenced by Dayanand, asking Pandit Tara Charan, the Raja's Court Pandit, who had been appointed to defend the cause of orthodoxy, whether he admitted the Vedas as the authority. When this had been agreed to, he requested Tara Charan to produce passages from the Vedas sanctioning idolatry, pashanadipujna (worship of stones, etc.). Instead of doing this, Tara Charan, for some time, tried to substitute proofs from the Puranas.
"At last Dayanand happening to say that he only admitted Manu Smriti, Sharirak Sutras, etc. as authoritative, because founded on the Vedas. Vishuddhanand, the great Vedantist interfered, and quoting a Vedant Sutra from the Sharirak Sutras, asked Dayanand to show that it was founded on the Vedas. After some hesitation, Dayanand replied that he could do this only after referring to the Vedas, as he did not remember the whole of them. Vishuddanand then tauntingly said that if he could not do that, he should not set himself up as a teacher in Benares. Dayanand replied that none of the Pandits had the whole of the Vedas in his memory. Thereupon Vishuddhanand and several others asserted that they knew the whole of the Vedas by heart.
" Then followed several questions, wholly irrelevant to the subject under discussion, but put by Dayanand to show that his opponents have asserted more than they could justify. They could not answer any of his questions. At last some Pandits took up the thread of the discussion again by asking Dayanand, whether the terms 'pratima'(likeness) and 'purti' (fullness), occurring in the Vedas, did not sanction idolatry. He answered that rightly interpreted they did not do so. As none of the opponents objected to his interpretation, it is plain that they either perceived the correctness of it or were too little acquainted with the Vedas to venture to contradict it.
"Then Madhvacharya, a Pandit of not repute, produced two leaves of a Vedic manuscript and reading a passage containing the word 'Puranas' asked to what this term referred. Dayanand replied: it was there simply an adjective, meaning ancient, and not the proper name. Vishuddhanand challenging this interpretation, some discussion followed as to its grammatical correctness; but at last, al seemed to acquiesce in it. Then Madhvacharya again produced two other leaves of a Vedic manuscript, and read a passage with this purport that upon the completion of a yajna (sacrifice) the reading of the Puranas should be heard on the tenth day, and asked how the term Puranas could be there an adjective. Dayanand took the manuscript in his hand and began to meditate what answer he should give. His opponents wanted but two minutes, and as still, no answer was forthcoming, they rose, jeering and calling out, that he was unable and was defeated, and went away. The answer he afterwards published in his pamphlet.
"Unquestionably, Dayanand should have had more time.
It is, however, apparent that there was some difficulty in replying, and Dayanand subsequently published his answer in the form of a pamphlet, declaring that word 'vidya' ought to be affixed to the word 'Purana', the compound meaning the ancient knowledge of the Veda. This answer is not satisfactory. There cannot be much doubt in this, that the word 'Purana' here stands for the eighteen Puranas. But as the passage is out of a Brahmana of the Samveda, which contains many modern additions, its value would not, after all, be much in the eyes of the non-Hindus, and, I suspect, even of Dayanand; for he once admitted to me that the Brahmanas did contain modern interpolated portions, and that any passage sanctioning idolatry, was to be considered as such as a spurious portion.
"This reformer is not unacquainted with the Christian religion. He has read the Gospels, though, in my opinion, not very carefully. I had a talk with Dayanand on the subject. At present his own scheme of reform claims his special attention, and he cannot afford to devote much time to the investigation of a different faith".*
A correspondent of the Pioneer, writing to the paper, said that Swami Dayanand had failed to make out his case against the Benares Pandits, and in consequence had lost his prestige. To quote his own words, "the Swami hung down his head, and the Pandits clapped their hands in triumph. An attempt was made by some turbulent spirits to hoot the Swami and to inflict a personal chastisement on him for his audacity in questioning the propriety of the national model of worship, but the presence of the Maharaja quenched the ebullition of their spirit." In answer to what the writer calls an "unvarnished account of the discussion." The following lines appeared in the leading Anglo-Indian paper of India:-
"I refrain from giving the details of the discussion, for they would hardly be intelligible to the majority of your readers. Those who take a special interest in the controversy may refer to a small pamphlet, entitle the Shastrarth, which can be had of Messrs. Brij Bhooshan Dass, of Benares. Suffice it to say that the question at issue was whether idolatry is sanctioned by the Vedas which, according to the orthodox Hindu, are Divine Revelation. The Swami maintained that the Vedas do not inculcate idolatry, and the Pandits did not produce at the time, nor have they produced since, a single passage from the Vedas that could dislodge the Swami from his position. The answers of the Pandits were extremely evasive. The whole controversy was no better than a regular tamasha, for the Brahmans did not confine their arguments
*The original article (English) not being available, the major portion has been retranslated from the Urdu version. The Translation must be faulty in several places, the more so as the Urdu version is not quite clear in several places.
As to the account itself, a better one perhaps could not have been expected, considering that the writer was a Christian missionary. Only fancy his sitting in judgment upon Swami Dayanand's Sanskrit.
to the point at issue, but carried on altercations on various points of Hindu jurisprudence, logic, and Sanskrit grammar, which had not the least bearing on the main question. How can your correspondent, in the face of the above facts, boldly assert that the Swami got the 'worst of the fight,' I leave for your impartial readers to judge."
THE PRAYAG KHUMBA FAIR, ETC.
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Hearing that the Kumbha Fair at Allahabad was approaching, Swami Dayanand left for that place, and having arrived there took up his quarters in the open air on the bank of the Ganges. The Pandits and Sadhus waited upon him in numbers, and vidyarthis also flocked to him from all sides. His lectures on idol-worship, on tilak and kanthi, etc., attracted large audiences and revolutionized the religious ideas of many. The Pandits resented his scathing criticism, and some of them even made bold to hold with him a shastrarth on idol-worship, but the attempt ended in signal failure. They cited mantras from the Vedas, alleging that they were chanted to endow the images with life, but when, in response to a call form the Swami, they translated the same, they found that the passage had nothing to do with their contention.
The Swami further pointed out to them how the mantra - Natasy pratima asti, inculcated the very reverse of what the Pandits asserted it did; it was an empathic refuation of the worship of images and insisted upon the adoration of the one God only, in spirit. The Pandits grumbles and finally retired growling. Some of the orthodox here went so far as to tell the Swami that were he in their part of the country, the world have him buried alive. A heavy laugh from the Swami was the answer, and resuming shi seriousness, he spoke to them exhaustively on "Dharma and Adharma."
After staying for about a month at Alllahabad, the Swami proceeded to Mirzapur, where he remained for about two months, and-a-half, in a beautiful garden, belonging to Ram Rattan Ladha. The effect of his speeches here also was of the most salutary kind. Among the Pandits, who, on hearing the truth, gave up idol-worship, were Nagin and Bhagwati Charan, and many of the Pandits commenced doing the sandhya regularly. While at Mirzapur, the Swami rose daily at about 2 A.M. and remained, till break of day, absorbed in meditation and contemplation (pranayama)
In May, 1870, the Swami returned to Benares, and, taking up his quarters in the garden belonging to Lala Madho Das, Honorary Magistrate, near Durgakund, delivered lectures daily on the falseness of Neo-Vedantism. He repeatedly challenges the orthodox Pandits to a shastrarth by means of printed notices, but no one had the courage to come forward. One Baboo Harish Chandra
having his objections thoroughly removed, became a follower of the Vedic religion.
The Maharajas of Bharatpur, Riwan, and Nairwa were among the great personages who visited the Swami during his stay at Benaries. A conversation on the "Existence of God" ensued. The arguments advanced by the Swami in support of Theism were so strong and convincing that the Chiefs were extremely pleased and thanked the Swami for the trouble he had taken on their account.
Wandering about for a whole year along the banks of the Ganges, the Swami was again back at Kashi, in March, 1872, and having spent some days here, running down superstitions and declaring sublimity of the Vedic Faith, he proceeded to Bengal. Passing through Dumraon, he reached Patna, in September, 1872, and have stayed here for about a month, during which period many discussions on a small scale took place and hundreds of people heard him exposing idolatry and other institutions, the Swami repaired to Monghyr, where he lectured for fifteen days. From Monghyr, he went to Bhagalpur, arriving at his destination on 20th October, 1872. Here several discussions took place with the Brahmans and the Christians.
One day a Bengali Christian gentleman, hearing the Swami's updesh, burst into tears, remarking, "Had I found anyone like yourself, O most revered Sir, a score of years earlier to resolve my doubts, I would never have permitted myself to be torn from my brethren and my ancestral religion. In those days, I waited upon on Pandit after another with my questions, but not one of them would or could answer them to my satisfaction."
The Maharaja of Burdwan also came to hear him, and discussion with the Padris took place in His Highness's presence on "Incarnation." His Highness was alleged to have a decided leaning towards the Christian Faith, but he heard the discussion in silence, and then retired. He requested the Swami to stay in his palace, but the Swami begged to be excused from acceding to his wishes, saying that he preferred retirement.
The Bengali Headmaster of the local school also waited upon the Swami one day, in company with some twenty of his pupils, and began to speak upon the merits of his Faith. The Swami gave him an exhaustive reply, disabusing, in the course of the reply, his mind of the impression that all the four varnas were one and the same thing and that promiscuous eating was anything desirable. The conversation lasted until 10 P.M.
The following day, there was another discussion with the Brahmos, in the open air, under a grand shamiana. The Maharaja was present at the discussion, although, as formerly, he never said anything for or against the position of any party during the period the debate lasted. The Brahmo gentlemen finding themselves pressed hard finally said: "If our great one in Calcutta accepts what you say, we shall accept it too."
After two months' stay at Bhagalpur, the Swami left for Calcutta, on December 15th, 1872.
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Swami Dayanand now thought of visiting Calcutta, and, in pursuance of this resolve, he left Kashi and proceeded to the Capital of the Indian Empire via Dumraon. Mr. Chander Shighar Sen, Barrister-at-Law, in response to whose invitation the Swami had undertaken the journey, was, at the proper time, at the Howra Station to receive his distinguished guest, and drove with him to Baboo Surendra Mohan's garden, where the Swami was to put up. The Barrister, as well as the owner of the garden, was unsparing in his attentions to the Swami, making him feel perfectly at home in every respect.
As soon as it was known that the great reformer was in Calcutta, educated people of every denomination flocked to him in numbers. The Indian Mirror, type, noticing his arrival, spoke of him as an iconoclast of a superior type, as a man of unbounded learning who had proved himself more than a match for the greatest Pandits of Benares, as a teacher who, by his other various achievements, had made himself a name in Northern India.
The Brahmo Samaj of Calcutta was in the zenith of its power in these days, and the leading Brahmos were constantly by the Swami's side, being under the impression, no doubt, that he would ultimately come round to their views. But the impression was not long in being dissipated. The Swami took his stand on the Vedas, and everything Vedic had his profound sympathy and his earnest advocacy, - a thing, more or less, distasteful to the members of the Brahmo Samaj.
Of course, there must be discussions between Dayanand and the believers in the Brahmo Faith, and the debates took place almost daily, "What do you understand by caste?" a gentleman asked the Swami. The reply was, that caste or varna want social status determined entirely by the individual's worth and actions, and that it was not at all identical with the present arbitrary and false differentiation, in social life, of one person from another from considerations of birth alone.
"Should or should not the Yajnopavit be worn?" The reply was, that the members of the "twice-born" classes should, one and all wear it, though it did not signify much if the ignorant individuals, miscalled Brahmans, went without it.
Is God corporeal or incorporeal?" The reply was absolutely without form and figure, being essentially Truth, Intelligence and Happiness.
"Was the author of the Sankhya Darshana an atheist? He wrote - Ishwarasiddhe, denying thereby the existence of God." The Swami replied that such misconceptions were entirely traceable to the scant regard in which the present-day Pandits held the commentaries by the sages of yore. The aphorism, affirmed as declaring the belief of the author of Sankhya, was really an objection from a non-believer (in the Vedic Religion), and that there was a reply to it in the next aphorism. Kapila, the Swami added, was
a believer in the transmigration of souls, he was a believer in the Vedas, he was a believer in yoga, and he was a believer in the existence of the Soul, and as such he could not teach the non-existence of the Deity. In point of fact, there was no discrepancy between the teaching of one Darshana-Shastra and another. Each of the six dealt, separately and independently, with one of the six causes which had been instrumental in producing the world. The Nyaya spoke of the atoms, the Mimansa of action, the Sankhya of the combination of elements, Patanjali of thought and intelligence, Vaisheshak of time, and the Vedanta of a creative Deity.
"Was not Agnihotra a kind of idol-worship?" The Swami's answer was in the negative. A function which necessitated a contemplation of the Deity and which was fraught with good to the entire world, could not be identified with the worship of idols.
So markedly attractive was the personality of Swami Dayanand to all true inquirers that his company was sought after both by high and low. Baboo Gyani Indra lal Roy, M.A.B.L. (Editor of a Bengali paper) referring to this attraction, speaks of the Swami's argumentative power and his erudition in the most flattering terms. "His power of lecturing , his skill in discussion and his thorough acquaintance with the Shastras, " says he, "astonished everyone. Crowds of men would approach him in the capacity of true enquirers, and obtaining satisfactory answers to their questions, go away to their homes. They had never heard before any of their countrymen, not conversant with the English language, declare to them, in connection with the Dharma and the Samaj (society), a Faith so utterly devoid of partiality."
With Baboo Keshuv Chandra Sen the Swami had a discussion on the doctrine of the "Transmigration of Souls." It must have been an interesting debate, and it was to be wished that we had an account of the same to notice here, but perhaps none has been preserved. There can be no question, however, that Baboo Keshav Chandra Sen, though his religious beliefs differed widely from those of Swami Dayanand, had a sincere regard for his opponent.
This is fully evident from the fact that the Swami delivered, on January 9, 1873, at the Baboo's house, and at the learned Baboo's own request, a lecture on the superiority of the "Vedic Religion." Many of the reises and learned men of the town formed part of the Swami's audience on the present occasion. Only a few days after this the anniversary-date of the Brahmo Samaj came round. The Swami was also invited, and Maharishi Devindra Nath Tagore sent his own carriage to bring him, and when he came, the Maharishi received him in person in the most cordial manner possible. The Maharishi, like Baboo Keshave Chandra Sen, invited the Swami to his private place of residence. This was during the anniversary-day. The Maharishi was one of the greatest admirers
of the Upanishads, and the Vedas in his palace being profusely embellished with texts from the same and with quotations from the other Shastras, the sight was most edifying to the Swami, and he confessed as much to the Maharishi. The latter requested the Swami to put up with him, but the Swami begged to be excused from availing himself of the offer on the ground that as a Sanyasi he could not live with grihasthis.
On February 23, 1873, Swami Dayanand delivered a lecture at the house of Baboo Guru Charan Datta, in which he proved that the Vedas did not countenance idolatry. Pandit Mahesh Chandra Nyayaratna, who was present, rose at the conclusion of the lecture and gave a summary of the lecture to the audience in Bengali. But not proving himself a faithful interpreter and saying many things which the Swami had never said, the hearers were much displeased with him, especially the students of the local Sanskrit College.
On 2nd March, 1873, the Swami spoke in the Hall of the Bara-Nagar Borneo Company on "Havan," and some seven days after that he addressed a large and influential audience on the "Vedic Doctrines" in the Bara-Nagar Night School. The lecture lasted over three hours. The up-shot of the speech was that the Vedas inculcated absolute unity of Godhead, that they recognized no artificial system of caste, that child-marriage and other institutions of similar kind were utterly un-Vedic, and that the one the only remedy for the evils which were, and had been undermining India's prosperity lay in India's return to the pure Faith of the ancients - even that taught in the Scriptures. Noticing this speech, the Indian Mirror said that it proved the speaker not merely a learned man but one who was also deeply thoughtful - one whose arguments were strong and forcible, and whose manner of speaking was bold and fearless.
This lecture was followed by two or three others, all largely attended. The Swami never lost an opportunity of enlarging upon the importance of studying the ancient Aryan Shastras, and when he visited the Sanskrit college of Prasanno Kumar Tagore, he spoke so warmly for these that the good Baboo actually agreed to include the Vedas in the curriculum of studies for the College. It is also affirmed that he spoke to Dr. Mohindra Lal very strongly as to the necessity of reviving the study of the Ayurveda.
We are told that Pandit Tara Charan Tarak-Ratan Naiyyayak thrice essayed to face the Swami, but each time the attempt failed. He was well aware of what it was to hold a discussion with a scholar like Dayanand, and he might well shrink from a contest with him.
The Swami visited the Asiatic Museum with a view to purchasing copies of the Vedas and the Upanishads, and he did buy some works from here.
It was here at Calcutta that Swami Dayanand realized the necessity of discontinuing lecturing in Sanskrit for the future. He could not but see that he was not always interpreted faithfully and that by speaking in Sanskrit he could directly reach but the
minority. Baboo Keshav Chandra Sen is said to have hinted to him as such, and he resolved that henceforward his public lectures should be, if possible, invariably in Arya Bhasha (Hindi). And it was probably at Calcutta that the Swami took to wearing clothes. The whims of society, so long, as they were comparatively innocent and did not encroach upon the principle, might be tolerated in the interests of the great mission so dear to him and all true well-wishers of their mother-land.
One day, in the course of conversation, Baboo Keshav Chandra Sen is said to have expressed regret at the Swami's ignorance of English. "If the Vedic scholar like yourself were conversant with English," said he, "what a suitable companion you would make me in my contemplated visit to England?" The Swami in reply observed that he too was sorry at Baboo Keshav Chandra's ignorance of Sanskrit, considering that the pure and enlightened Faith of the Aryan nation lay enshrined in that language. Certainly nothing could be more pretentions, added he, than that the Baboo, the master of a foreign tongue, should claim to teach to his countrymen what he himself understood but little.
The lectures which Swami Dayanand delivered at Calcutta were considered, as might well be presumed that they were, worth preserving, and his admirers thought they would print them. The proposal had the heartiest approval of Babool Keshav Chandra Sen, but before it could be carried out, the Swami had left the town.
What had among other things, principally influenced the Swami to pay a visit to Calcutta, was to found there a Pathshala (school), on true Vedic lines. While he was yet at Benares, the following editorial had appeared in the Hindu Patriot (January, 1870);-
"Here is an opportunity for the Dharma Sabha to prove itself useful, which we trust and hope will not be thrown away. The Sabha is an anachronism, but its existence may be tolerated by enlightened public opinion, if it make its existence may be tolerated by enlightened public opinion, if it makes its objects to revive Vedic learning and Vedic religion, the glorious heritage of our proud ancestor.
"We wish our correspondent had given an estimate of the cost of the proposed Vedic School, which ought, of course, to be moderate, and we cannot believe that if the objects of the projected institution were properly explained and circulated, there would be lack of funds. A single Native Prince might give the money required. It would certainly redound to the credit of the Dharma Sabha if it should come forward liberally and second the laudable efforts of the New Reformer. Otherwise we would recommend the Brahmo Samai, as the chief instrument of the revival of Vedic worship under the guidance of the late Raja Ramamohan Roy, to interest itself in this sacred cause, and lend its support and authority to the new Reformer."
Further on the paper said:-"In conclusion, we would make a strong appeal to the heads of the orthodox class of Hindus to assist Dayananda Saraswati in establishing a Vedic School. Almost all the educated natives are theists at heart, and though some cling to idolatry for the sake of their parents and nearest relations, many have avowedly adopted
Brahmoism. It is, therefore, meet that the Vedic religion should be revived, the tide of progress cannot be obstructed, and the members of the Sanatan Dharma Rakashini Sabha will ill-succeed in keeping upt he present system of Hinduism. They will secure the lasting gratitude of the Hindus if they try to purify Hinduism from the corruptions that have crept into it, and establish the Vedic religion of the educated."
On the appearance of the forgoing lines, the Benares correspondent of the Patriot wrote to its as follows:-
"Emboldened by your words of encouragement we repaired to Anand-Bag in Benares, and explained to the venerable Pandit the substance of your editorial remarks. The joy of the sage knew no bounds, and with a blooming countenance he thanked you most heartily. He then propounded the following plan in accordance with which the working of the pro0psed Vedic School is intended to be carried out. As a first step, the services of a good Pandit should be secured for teaching Sanskrit literature. As Saraswati has in contemplation the introduction of a system of training that will lead to a clear understanding of the Vedas, he intends selecting a Pandit from among a few best scholars he is acquainted with.
"Though a native of Guzerat, he was brought up in a Vedic School at Mathura, under the tuition of the great sage, the late lamented Sura Dasa. There are a few scholars of this great man, who will gladly accept the teachership of the proposed School, if remunerated on a somewhat liberal scale. The salary should be from Rs. 75 to Rs 100 per month. After the pupils have been thoroughly initiated into Sanskrit literature, which will take two years to accomplish, the services of another Pandit should be secured at say Rs. 100 per month, for teaching the Vedas. As liberal education has inflamed the hearts of many a youth with the fire of religious zeal, advanced Scholars of the Sanskrit College and Pandits of the Vernacular schools might be induced to enter the Academy with a view to obtain an insight into the Vedic lore.
"In that case, a Night School ought to be organized; and not Eleemosynary aid will then be needed. But as there is every probability of pupils from Nabodeep or other Samajes joining the School, arrangements should be made for supplying all their necessaries, including purchase of books, etc. a
At the outset, a monthly subscription should be raised sufficient to pay Rs. 100 per month to a Pandit, and to defray the necessary expenses for teaching 10 pupils. In addition to the monthly subscription there should of course be a reserve fund to meet contingent expenses.
"I do not say anything at present about School-building and boarding house, because I think anyone of our wealthy countrymen might be induced to spare one of their supernumerary buildings for this noble purpose. As soon as arrangements have been made opening the proposed school, our venerable Pandit Dayanand Saraswati will start for Calcutta in company with a Sanskrit teacher, and will stay there as long as his assistance will be considered necessary to place the long as his assistance will be considered necessary to place the Pathshala on a firm footing. It is the intention of our Pandit to make Benares, which has an academic fame of no recent date, the center of his educational scheme, with Schools spread all over
India; and if the liberal-minded gentry come forward to fulfill the desire of this great man, they will assuredly confer a great boon on India. The branches of the tree of corruption have overshadowed the whole of India, and it is his noble intention to apply the axe of truth to the very root of the tree, which has gone deeper at Benares than elsewhere. Yesterday, the Pandit left this station for Allahabad where he intends staying for a month."
The Swami's object of establishing a Pathshala at Calcutta, however, was never realized, for the people would do little more than showing "lip-sympathy."
AT DIFFERENT PLACES IN BIHAR, ETC.
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Swami Dayanand left Calcutta on Ist April, 1873, and reaching Hughly put in the garden belonging to Bindraban Mandal Zimindar. The news of his arrival produced the usual stir in the town and brought numbers of people to see him. The well-known Professor Rev. Lal Behori Dey waited upon him and had a talk with him on �Caste� were perfectly reasonable and sound, and frankly acknowledged that his own ideas on the subject had been rather confused and erroneous.
At Hughly the Swami delivered several lectures, the one on the 7th April being given in the presence of the principal men of the town. Pandit Tara Charan was not far from the place where the meeting was held, but he would not venture near the Swami, though getting on the top of a neighbouring house he held forth to his admirers on the unorthodox character of the Sanyasi�s teaching. When the Pandit�s conduct was reported to the Swami, he regretted that he should have behaved in the manner he had done, for he was perfectly at liberty to give expression to his views at the meeting and to have the truth threshed out. The leading men of Hughly agreed with the Swami, and they besought Pandit Tara Charan to hold a shastrarth with him. The Pandit at last consented, and the discussion came of on the following day � 8th April � on �Idolatry.�
The Pandit commenced by reciting an aphorism from, as he declared, the Yoga-Darshana of Pantanjali, and commenting upon it declared that the mind could not be concentrated without the help of material objects, and hence the necessity of idol-worship in upaasna, according to the aphorism of Vyasa! Swami Dayanand replied that no such aphorism was to be found in Patanjali, andif it was Pantanjali�s, it could not possibly be Vyasa�s. He then recited the real Sutra and, repeating Vyasa�s commentary thereon, said, that what the commentator meant was that the mind should be concentrated on the forepart of the nose. The discussion proceeded, and eventually Pandit Tara Charan, finding himself hard pressed, became reckless and exclaimed: �All worship is a lie.� The audience was astounded, while the Swami smiled and said: �You confess then that idolatry is false?� The Pandit, it is
asserted that Swami in private and he was an admirer of Classical Sanskrit Literature and an enemy of the modern productions in Sanskrit, and the he fully believed that idol-worship was false out-and-out; but he could not , he added openly avow what he believed in his heart, out of consideration for his worldly interests!
Departing from Hughly on the 16th of April, 1873, the Swami arrived at Bhagalpur, wehre he stayed for one month, and then left for Patna. At Patna he delivered several lectures, and it was towards the close of May that eh proceeded thence to Chhapra, where he became a guest of Rao Shiv Gulam Shah Bahadur, Zimindar, whos reception of him was markedly respectful and cordial. The interested portion of the Chhapra community taking their cue from their brethren of Patna, who had proclaimed the Swami to be a �German Christian,� gave out that he was an infidel.
The sensible and enlightened residents of the place, however, could not be hoodwinked, and they called upon the local Pandits to hold a shastrarth with the new-comer. The Pandits declined to accede to their wishes, on the ground that the man was a nastik (infidel or athiest0, that they would have to undergo a prayashchit (expiation) in case they say his face. The Swami coming to hear of this objection, observed that he difficulty was not insuperable, that a screen might be hung between himself and the Pandits, which would prevent his being see by them, and they hung back silent and sullen, till one of them, Pandit Jaggan Nath, took up the gaunlet and specified the day on which the discussion should take palce. The day came, and a screen was actually hung between the parties. The Swami put the Pandit some questions from the Smritis, in Sanskrit, and the Pandit replied; but so wretched were his answers that on the Swami�s pointing out his bad grammar, he was wholly non-plussed and refused to proceed with the discussion.
The Swami had no alternative but to address the audience himself, and his lecture lasted for full four hours, convincing all thoughtful and impartial-disposed minds that idolatry-loving Pandits were completely in the wrong. The Pandits, however, were not going to take their defeat silently. The shouted out that the Swami was misinterpreting and disgracing the Vedas and hence one who was to be shunned and avoided by all true-believers. Some of the more zealous, in their disappointment, went so far as to openly assert that they would stone the atheist to death if they should get at him.
after about two weeks� stay at Chhapra, during which he visited the local school also, the Swami left for Danapur, whence he proceeded to Arrah, where he spent over a month, making known his mission to all who came to him. From Arrah he went to Dumraon, where he became a guest of the ruler of the principality, putting up in the state Bungalow near the Railway-station. The Maharaja, with his courtiers, met him and had friendly chat with him on various subjects. No shastrarth worth the name was held here � only a short discussion took place between him and the
State Pandit, Durga Datta, on �Vedantism and idolatry,� in the presence of the Chief and his grandees. The Swami, when refuting the Neo-Vedantism, pointed out the true meaning of such expressions, as Ekamedvadvtiyam Brahm and giving the Niaruktak interpretation of the mantra - Brahmanaoasya etc., which Pandit Durga Datta had advanced in support of idolatry, showed that the Scriptural passage hand nothing to do with the worship of the creature in any form whatsoever. The Pandit then quoted from the Jabal Upanishad in defense of idol-worship, but the Swami�s reply was: �This Upanishad is a spurious composition. Shankracharya, whom you profess to follow, does not, does not at all recognize it.� To this no answer was forthcoming.
The Pandit, however, knew how to retrieve his defeat. In his own summary of the discussion, embodied in �the history of his triumphs� (Digvijai), published in Samvat 1941, after the Swami�s death, he worte: �When Dayanand saw that he was unable to answer any further, he smiled and said: Pandit Druga Dattaji, you are a wonderful one. I am only aman, by you are omniscient and thoroughly conversant with all the Shastras. I, a mortal, cannot hold a discussion with you, the Brahm!� Very modest this of the pandit! And pray, why was not Dayanand as a good �Brahm� as the Pandit himself, according to the Pandit�s own way of thinking?
Swami Dayanand set off from Dumraon on 8th January, 1873, and after making a day�shalt at Mirzapur, where the affairs of the Pathshala received his attention, left for Allahabad, which had its due share of updesh, and it was not had well nigh gone that he reached Kanpur Here he stayed for about a month, living in a solitary hut on the bank of the Ganges, some two miles from the town, and delivering lectures at the various centers of the locality, in accordance with the suggestions of the leading men thereof.
lala Ghanya Lal, Alakhdhari, noticing on the authority of a correspondent, the Swmi�s work at Kanpur, regretted that so true a reformer and teacher should be abused and hooted by the deluded, ignorant and priest-ridden kanpuris.
Leaving Kanpur towards the close of November he arrived at Farrukhabad, where he had interviews with the Director of Public Instruction, and Sir Charles Muir, Lieutenatn-Governor, N.W.P. He appealed to the Lieutenant Governor to protect, the cow , and His Honor replied the he would do what he could in that direction on entering the India Council, on his retirement from Service.
Taking leave of Farrukhabad and passing through Kashganj and Chhalesar, the Swami reached Aligarh on 26th December, 1873, in company with Thakur Mukand singh, and some other Rajpoots, and accepted the hospitality of Raja Jaikishen Dass, C.S.T. Enquirers from the town and the surrounding villages came in scores, and Dharma charcha (discussion on religious topics) was kept up till late in the night. On 27th December the Swami gave his first lecture at Aligarh, addressing a mixed audience of Hindus
and Muhammadans and of Officers, Civil and Military. The lecture was followed by several others, all largely attended by representatives of every creed. As a matter of fact, the Swami had company all day long, the Pandits and Moulvis and others having full permission to see him at any time and to have their doubts removed. The local celebrity, Pandit Mehr Chand, who, before the Swami�s arrival at Aligrah, ahd been boasting that the Swami durst not face him, kept away from the Swami�s meetings during the entire period of the teacher�s stay at the station, calling his adversary a nastik and whatnot, and refusing to listen to the suggestion of his towns-men that he should go and have a shastrarth with the man whom he had so often worsted in his absence!
After about a month�s stay at Aligarh, the Swami repaired to Hathras, whence, in response to an invitation from Rao Tikam Singh, he proceeded to Mursan, which, after a few day�shalt, he left for Mathura (Vrindaban) via Hathras. Pandit Dev Parshad, a Deputy collector, was aware of the Swami�s approaching visit to Mathura, Raja Jaikishen Das having written to him about the same, and he selected Radhabagh for the Swami�s residence. As to what had been instrumental in drawing the Swami to Mathura, was the refusal on the part of a class-fellow of his (Pandit Ganga Datta) to accept a teachership in the Farrukhabad pathshal till Mathura, the strong-hold of idolatry had been visited and idol-worship there been given a death-blow. �Rangacharya he said, �goes about the city with flambeaux burning before him in the day-time, proclaiming that the worship of idols is right and good. If I am to accept the post in your gift and move from Mathura, I will do that only after you have been in our midst, and exposed the false teachers.� The Swami was impressed by this communication from his class-fellow and found himself erelong at Vrindaban.
When Swami Dayanand arrived at Vrindaban, he found it in a state of unusual excitement. The Raht Fair on the Brahma Utsav was bout to take place, and followers of Vaishnav creed had flocked to Krishna�s birth-place in hundreds and thousands from the most distant parts of India. A more glorious opportunity the Swami could not look for to make known the Truth. Accordingly, a notice was issued in Hindi, under the signature of Bakshi Mahbu Masih, that Swami Dayananda�s lectures would commence on the 5th of March, 1874, the very day on which the Fair was to begin.
At the same time a challenge was sent to Rangacharya to come forward and support idolatry on the authority of the Vedas, to show that the wearing of kanthi and tilak was, as the asserted, inculcated in the Scriptures. Rangacharya replied that he would answer the call on the termination of the Fair. The reply was significant and the Swami rating it at its proper worth, took to vigorously exposing the un-Vedic institutions and usages in the very thick of the Fair. The unanswerable arguments of the Swami were daily reported to Rangacharya, and the latter realizing, in the depths of his heart, the utter hopelessness of making good his position against such antagonist, had it given out that he was not feeling well. In proportion, the day fixed for the
shastrarth drew nearer, the illness of the learned Rangacharya increased, and at last, when the day arrived, he would not leave his house and was self-denying enough to forego the pleasure of entering into a controversy, in spite of his promise to the contrary! The erudite Ranacharya is said to have confessed to an acquaintance of his in private that he had no desire to hold a shastrarth, for, in the event of Dayanand�s being defeated, the �Sadhu� would lose nothing, but if he was worsted in the contest, all his reputation would be gone. Rangacharya caring for the world and its opinion had doubtless much at stake, and he was wise in his generation for avoiding Dayanand, for the latter was stronger in faith!
The admirers of Rangacharya took up cudgels on behalf of their master, not metaphorically but literally. Some four or five hundred Chovas (sturdy, begging Brahmans) armed with clubs, surrounded the Swami�s residence, abusing him and gnashing their teeth in rage, but the Deputy Collector was equal to the emergency and no disturbance took place. The effect of such conduct on the part of Rangacharya�s followers was that many men gave up idolatry once and forever.
Having done his work at Vrindaban, the Swami came to Mathura, where he stayed only four days, but something was accomplished even during this small period. Several enquirers were so impressed by his teaching that they threw their idols into a river and gave their allegiance to the one and only God of the Universe � even to Him whose glory the Vedas proclaim! Pandit Madan Datta, in particular, was so charmed by the Swami�s truthful updesh that though he had started from home with the avowed object of defending and advocating idolatry, he commenced denouncing if before his very admirers and in the presence of hundreds of Vaishnavas and other non-believers in the Vedic religion.
From Mathura, Swami Dayanand accompanied Rao Tikam Singh once more to Mursan, which, after a few day's stays, he left for Chhalesar and thence for Allahabad, the Rao driving him to Medva Station in his own carriage. From Allahabad he proceeded to Kashi, arriving there towards the middle of June, 1874. he put up in the garden of Ram Parshad Udasi, and preached, for the first time,, in Hindi, in Benares. Through Sayyad Ahmad Khan, Sub-Judge, at whose residence he delivered tow or three lectures, had interviews with Mr. Shakespeare and the Maharaja of Benares.
His Highness�s attitude towards the Swami had been anything but friendly on the occasion of the famous shastrarth with the Kashi Pandits � indeed, he had done all he could to have the Swami snubbed and discomfited, but now his behavior was different. As soon as he saw the Swami, he came forward to receive him, embraced him and seated him on a golden chair. The Maharaja�s action was little better than heaping live coals on the head of a favorite Pandit � Pandit Tara Charan, who happened to be by and who had taken prominent part in the Kashi Shastrarth; but that Maharaja had time to appreciate the Swami�s sterling worth and unique erudition, and was now evidently
desirous of atoning, to some degree, for the past. He asked the Swami�s pardon for his previous harshness and assured him that he should no mind his criticisms any longer. When, after taking his leave, the Swami had arrived at his lodgings, His Highness sent him a present of a maund of sweets, which the Swami, as was his won't, distributed among the company.
In July, 1874, the Swami found himself at Allahabad gain, and he had notices put up, inviting all non-believers in the Vedic Religion to see him and have the truth sifted. A marhatta Christian waited upon him with Professor Max Muller�s translation of the Rig Veda and asserted that the word �Agni� in the Vedas meant nothing but fire. The Swami gave the good Christian insight into the motives which must sway a partial man like the Professor and showed him how his translation for various reasons could not be accepted as authoritative.
While pointing out to him how �Agni� meant �God� as well as fire and so on, the Swami took occasion to make clear to the enquirer the immense superiority of the Vedic Religion over the Christian faith, which talked of the Tower of Babylon and what not! The Marhatta made no reply but one Pandit Kashi Nath Shastri shouted out: �What have you created this disturbance for through the length and breadth of the country? The reply was, that inasmuch as interested Pandits had been promulgating a system of trickery in the land, and as they were unable to distinguish between truth and falsehood any longer, in consequence of their intellects having become �petrified� through idol-worship, he had come forward to defend the eternal principles of right and justice and to offer the same of their acceptance.
His first speech on India�s past glory began the fight for her independence.
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Swami Dayanand delivered several lectures at Allahabad � on the �Transmigration of Souls�, �Dharma�, and other kindred subjects. Their effect on the minds of the youthful community was particularly marked. It was the first man of the highest intellectual type and one profoundly verse in the ancient literature they had come across who gave the lie to the Native and European critics insinuating, orally or in books, that the primeval Vedic Religion was polytheistic or enjoined Nature-worship, and who held that patriotism was a virtue of the first order.
When these young men heard him prove, in the presence of thousands, incontestably and to the utter humiliation of those who would maintain the contrary, that the original Faith of the Aryas was the noblest and sublimest form of theism imaginable, and when they heard him speak of the glories of India in days-gone-by, with the eloquence of a genuine, enlightened lover of his mother-land, their whole being was thrilled with emotions of the most agreeable kind, and they accepted his teaching and guidance, and registered a vow in the sight of Heaven, and often in the sight and hearing of man as well, that they would do all in their power to be worthy of the Bharatvarsha of yore and of the sages that once dwelt in it. Many of the students of the Muir college, who came in contact with the Swami at Allahabad, have turned out to be real patriots, and bulwarks of the Arya Samaj.
It was during his stay at Allahabad that the manuscript of the first edition of the Satyarth Prakash (Light of Truth) was made over to Raja Jaikishen Das, c.s.i.,to be printed under his supervision.
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Bidding farewell to Allahabad early in October, 1874, Swami Dayanand left for Bombay, which, after visiting Nasak and Jabalpur, he reached on 26th of the month. The motive which is said to have originally influenced those who invited him to Bombay would appear to be somewhat selfish in the character. These gentlemen, thinking, in their ignorance, that the great Teacher could be bent to their purposes, wanted to press his profound learning and his extraordinary intellectual powers into their service to secure a triumph for their own particular creed, being under the impression that once its superiority was indisputably established, they would get converts in any number. But they never were more mistaken in their lives. And like them the members of the Prarthana Brahmo Samaj had also to undeceive themselves. They too discovered that the man whom they had joined in inviting was not the one after their own heart and that inflexibility of purpose and devotion to principle were his strongest characteristics.
a Seth was waiting at the Bombay Railway station with his carriage and as soon s the Swami arrived, he drove him to the Mahadeva Balkeshar Hill, a place some two miles from Bombay, where he was put up. Notices, in four different languages, were posted in different parts of the city, announcing the reformer�s arrival and requesting all desirous of knowing the truth to visit him and have their difficulties explained. The orthodox Pandits spied danger and felt extremely ill at ease.
The Balbhacharies (Vaishnav sect) wields, as it were, an absolute sway in Bombay, and Swami Dayanand, having, by study and oral inquiry, gained a thorough insight into the character of this phase of Vaishnavism, delivered a series of lectures thereon, touching, in the course of his remarks, on some of the �dearly-loved� practices of its �acharyas,� some of whom, among other things, see positively nothing to object to in a layman of their faith, who has just entered the life of a householder, taking his future partner in life to one among themselves fort he sanctifying and spiritualizing of the tie!
Another failed attempt on his life.
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Revelations like these, whatever their effect on the outsiders, made the Balbhachari leaders frantic with rage, and one of these, Goswami Jiwanji, in his madness, determined to put the reformer out of the way. The services of four ruffians were hired, but these, though they dept dodging the steps of the Swami in season and out of season, could get no chance to carry out their fell purpose, as their intended victim was always well-attended. Foiled in this direction, the good Jiwanji sought to
accomplish his object in another way. Having, somehow or other, entice Baldev Singh Brahman, the Swami�s cook, into his dwelling he told him what he was after, promising him a reward of a thousand rupees if he would destroy his master by administering to him poison food. To assure the cook that he meant business, Jiwanji gave him a note-of-hand confirming the reward, and Rs. 5 in cash and five seers of sweetmeats as an additional, preliminary gift for a speedy execution of the plot unfolded. It is impossible to say how far the cook allowed himself to be influenced by his tempter, but certain it is that the fact of his visit to the chief of the Gokalias did not remain a secret.
Some one who had seen the man in close conference with Jiwanji reported the matter to Swami Dayanand, who sharply interrogated his servant on the point. The latter confessed everything, and laid the note as well as the money and sweetmeats before the Swami. That true Brahman did no more than content himself with having the sweets thrown away, with tearing the note in fragments, and with giving a warning to the cook not to be led away by mischievous persons in future.
All the reply that the Swami got to his challenges from the Bombay Pandits was at first no more than an anonymous handbill from one who styled himself P.E.N., containing twenty-four questions to be answered.
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The Swami was not bound to notice this hand-bill, but as an encouragement to and or the satisfaction of the Pandits he got Sadhu Poornanand to reply to the questions, seriatim, as follows:-
- I accept proofs such as pratyaksha pramana ocular demonstration or direct perception), and so on.
- I believe in the Four Vedas as absolutely authoritative (infallible).
- I do not look upon the Brahmans and other similar books as absolutely authoritative. I study them, because they are the compositions of Rishis, with the object of ascertaining as to what they day regarding the Vedas, to know how they interpret the Veda-mantras and what are their principles of belief.
- The reply to the third question contains the reply to the fourth.
- I study the Vedangas, such as Shiksha, etc. because, being the works of Munis. I want to find out what the day in respect of the Vedas. I do not accept them as my scriptures.
- The commentaries of the Vedas and Vedangas and similar annotatory works, which are Arsha or are admittedly the compositions of Rishis � these I do not regard as absolutely authoritative, but I study them to know if they are correct. Even for this do I study them, and not thinking them absolutely authoritative.
- The Purva Mimanda by Jaimini, the Uttara Mimansa by
Vyasa, etc., - these to I do not study regarding them as absolutely authoritative, but merely to see how far their teaching is in accord with that of the Vedas.
- I have no faith in the study and object of the Puranas and the Tantras; to look upon them, for me, as works of any authority, is out of the question.
- Neither the entire Mahabharata nor the whole of the Ramayana of Valmiki is entirely authoritative, for the usages and customs of society vary with times. They are chiefly meant to be read as works of history, speaking of those that are no more.
- The reply to the tenth question is contained in the reply to the ninth.
- I do not study Manu Smriti, thinking it as primarily and absolutely authoritative, but merely to know what Manu teaches.
- I do not regard Yajnavalka and Mitakshara Smriti as authoritative at all.
- See reply to question of twelfth.
- The systems of faith, such as that of Vishnu Swami, I do not regard as authoritative in the slightest degree. I refute and expose them, for these systems are repugnant to the Vedic Teachings.
- See reply to question fourteenth.
- I am not a free-thinker, but a believer in the Vedic religion. What the Veda says about the six essential or elementary Substances, even in that do I believe thoroughly.
- What the Veda says about the creation of the universe, and in respect of the author thereof, even in that do I believe in all its entirety.
- The time which has elapsed since the cycles of creation began, no one can compute. Even this should be known.
- The yajnas and other rites enjoined by the Vedas, these should be performed by all, to the best of their power.
- The system or usage sanctioned by the Vedas should alone be followed, and nothing to the contrary.
- The rites or ceremonials, whose performance is enjoined in the Shakhas, these are to be performed if in accordance with the teaching of the Vedas, but not if they are opposed to that teaching.
- Ishwara is not born, neither doth He dies. He that is born or dies, is not Ishwara, because he is not almighty, nor omniscient, nor indivisible, nor all-pervading, nor absolutely just.
- I belong to the Sanyas Ashrama.
- The book called the �Satya-Dharma Vichar,� printed in Yantrala � that embodies the beliefs of its author, and I have nothing to do with his beliefs.
�If we, the Aryas, talk on the Vedic Dharma in love, and without our minds entirely divested of prejudice, goodwill result from that. My wish is, that it should be so. If meetings were held for the purpose daily, I should regard it as something very desirable. Every one should so proceed that the various conflicting creeds be destroyed. The questions 13, 14, and 15 being mere re-iterations and the writer thereof being, consequently, guilty of repetition, I could not but ask myself, how a man who does not know how to put a question, cold, on closer acquaintance, carry on a discussion on approved lines. Thus did I reflect, thinking of the saying, that one who does not know how come by a meal, cannot possibly amass wealth. And the person who has put the above questions has not given his name, which is also very objectionable. So should all good men believe?
The Swami (Dayanand) too, is of this opinion. Whoever in future puts questions anonymously, he (says the Swami) shall have an answer through me (the under-signed). Also, whatsoever enquirer does not state, briefly, what creed he believes in, he too, shall have an answer to his questions through me (the undersigned) � Pooranand, 16th November, 1874.�
Subsequently it was deemed necessary to issue a notice that anonymous enquires, whether made publicly by means of printed hand-bills or in private communications, would receive no attention whatever. Whoever wanted to ask anything, must come into the light of day and have his questions answered.
The notice was followed by an exhaustive lecture on �Idol-worship,� in a splendid building situate on the Dhobi Ghat. The audience is said to have numbered about ten thousand souls, the Superintendent of Police, with a strong posse of his men, being in attendance to keep order. The effect of the lecture was what might well have been expected. It threw the kanthi-wearing idol-worshippers into a state of consternation, and it was unanimously resolved that it should not go unanswered.
Accordingly, one Gattu Lal, a blind Pandit, delivered a lecture in Lal Bag in support of idolatry, the other Pandits, including Vaishnavites, helping him in citing authorities from the Shastras on the table. One of the audience calling upon the Pandits to cite from the Vedas a passage speaking of �Murti� (idols), they glibly read out a line or two from, as they falsely declared, the Sama Veda, interpreting it to mean, that idols (pratima) laugh.
At this the orthodox were delighted beyond measure, and the meeting broke up with shouts of triumph, each Brahman being given an eight-anna piece as dakshina (largesse) in commemoration of the victory! And we doubt not that it was Goswami Jiwanji who had principally influenced Pandit Gattu Lal to deliver his lecture; but however much he might make of the speech just for show, he did not appear to think very greatly of it in his heart of hearts. He cleared off to Madras, to be away from the �heretic� who, in the meantime, did him the friendly turn of publishing a tract on the Balbhacharya System of Faith.
Pandit Gattu Lal�s lecture seemed to have inspired his brother pandits with some degree of courage. They agreed to hold shastrarths with him, and accordingly, two were held, - first, in the building of the Bombay Library on �Vyakarna and Idol-worship,� and the other in the garden belonging to Seth Niladhar on �Vedantism.� In the latte,r the Swami�s antagonist was famous and learned Pandit, Jaikrishan Das. The result of this discussion, in a manner, is embodied in the small tract which Swami Dayanand published under the name of �Vedanta Bhranti Niwaran,� a pamphlet which shows the falsity of the doctrines of �Non-duality,� and establishes the distinctive existence of God and Soul.
It was the desire of many men at Bombay that an Arya Samaj should be established, and as many a sixty individuals actually put down their names for membership, but, though the proposal, in a way, was carried out, the establishment of the Samaj failed to become a matter of public cognizance, the want of moral courage on the part of the members is one of the causes. The Swami receiving a call from Gopal Rao Hari Deshmukh, a judge, left for Ahmedabad in company with the learned judge�s son, a Barrister, who had been deputed for the purpose.
On alighting from the train at Ahmedabad, the Swami was received by an influential local Seth, a thorough believer in idols. On entering into a conversation with his guest, Seth fell to praising his fine temple which he had but just built at a cost of two or three Lakhs. All the effect which this eulogy produced on the Swami�s mind was his bringing his hand on the carriage-seat with some violence and crying out, in accents of sadness rather than anger,: �Alas! That you should have spent so much money on a stone. Had you laid it out in the establishment of a Pathshala, Veda-knowing Pandits would have come forth from the institution and benefited the world. To such a state have we been reduced, through our ignorance, that we have to look up to Germany to supply us with the Vedas before we can read them. They are not to be had in our own country!�
This was a �stunner� to the Seth, and, in his vexation, he said that he should have a shastrarth held between the Swami and the Pandits. The Shastrarth came off. It ea son �idol-worship,� and lasted for some five or six hours. The other party finding that they could not prove idol-worship from the Vedas lost their temper and took to abusing the Swami. At this moment Gopal Rao Hari Deshmukh, the Judge, arose and said, that it was fully evident from the shastrarth that the Vedas did not countenance idolatry. Of course, everyone was at liberty to believe it or not, but he was of language, whatever their views might be.
After about a month�s stay at Ahmedabad, the Swami repaired to Rajkot, where he delivered no less than twelve lectures. He visited the Raj Kumar College and gave an updesh to the students, all sons of princes. The Principal of the Institution put several questions to the Swami and got his answers, and, on the
Swami's taking leave of him, made him a present, of two copies of the Rig Veda.
Leaving Rajkot on the 18th of January, 1875, Swami Dayanand arrived once more at Ahmedabad on 21st, and spent a week there, lecturing, his remarks were particularly directed against the �Swami Narain Creed.� He also published a pamphlet here. On 29th of January he was at Bombay again.
THE SECOND VISIT TO BOMBAY
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On Swami Dayanand�s return to Bombay, the desire to make the establishment of an Arya Samaj a fait accompli, in a public sense; acquired additional strength, and it was finally settled that the predominant idea in the minds of the followers of the Veda should be given a practical shape in the right and proper way without further delay. Those competent for the task undertook to frame a set of principles for the guidance of the would-be organization, and the principles framed were discussed at several sittings. When they had been amended and altered and thoroughly approved by all, including the Swami himself, they were announced at a public meeting held on 10th of April, 1875, under the presidency of Mr. Girdhar Lal Dyal Das, Kothari, B.A., LL.B. in the garden belonging to Dr. Manakji, and the contemplated Samaj was declared to have been established.
The principles res out the following:-
In accordance with the above principles, many of which, it will be evident, are nothing but By-laws, the election of office-bearers took place, and it was settled that the Weekly Meeting of the Samaj should be held every Saturday evening. A short time after, however. Saturday was for, obvious reasons, found to be an
- The establishment of Arya Samajes in the interests of Society is absolutely necessary.
- The (Arya) Samaj shall regard the Vedas alone as independently and absolutely authoritative. For purposes of testimony and for the understanding of the Vedas, as also for historical purposes, all the four Brahmanas � Shathpatha, etc., the six Vedangas, the four Upa-vedas, the Six Darshanas, and 1,127 Shakhas or exposition of the Vedas, shall, by virtue of their being ancient and recognized works of Rishis, be also regarded as secondarily authoritative, in so far only as their teaching is in accord with that of the Vedas.
- There shall be a principal Arya Samaj in each province and the other Arya Samajes shall be its branches, all connected with one another.
- The Branch Samajes shall conform to as model the Principal Samaj.
- The Principal Samaj shall possess various Vedic works in Sanskrit and Aryabhasha (Hindi) for the dissemination of the true knowledge, and it shall issue a weekly paper under the name of �Arya Prakash,� also an exponent of the Vedic teaching. The paper and the books shall be patronized by all Samajes.
- Every Samaj shall have a President and a Secretary, other men and women shall be the members thereof.
- The President shall be responsible for the maintenance of the integrity and for the promotion of the prosperity of the Samaj, while the Secretary shall reply to all letters, and shall keep a record of the names, state, etc., of all members fo the Samaj.
- The members of the Samaj shall be men of truth, of upright policy and principles, of pure character, and of philanthropic impulse.
- Whatever leisure a member gets from house-hold work, he shall devote the same to the good of the Samaj, with more than the earnestness displayed in the discharge of household duties. Those that have no family to care for, should, in particular, be always striving to promote the well-being of the body. In no other way should they behave.
- Every eight-day the President, the Secretary and other members of the Samaj shall come together in the Samaj Mandir, giving precedence to punctual attendance over everything else.
- Having assembled together, they should be calm and composed in their minds, and in a spirit of love, and free from bias, they may ask questions and obtain answers from each other. This done, they shall sing the hymns of the Sama Veda in praise of God, and songs bearing on the true Dharma, the right principles and the right teaching, to the accompaniment of musical instruments. And the mantras shall be commented upon and explained and the lectures delivered on similar (Vedic) themes. After this there shall be music again, to be followed by interpretation of mantras and speeches as before, and so on in succession.
- Every member shall cheerfully contribute a hundredth part of the money he has earned honestly and with the sweat of his brow, towards the funds of the Samaj, the Arya Vidyala and the Arya Prakash paper. If he contributes more, the greater shall be his reward. The more thus contributed shall be used for the purposes specified and in no other way.
- The more an individual bestirs himself in bringing income to the Samaj for the purpose specified, and for the diffusion of a knowledge of the teachings of the Arya Samaj, the more honor shall he receive for his energy and zeal.
- The Samaj shall do, stuti, prarthana,and upasana (i.e. shall glorify, pray to and hold communion with the one only God), in the manner commanded by the Vedas. To speak of God as the Being who is formless, almighty, just, infinite, immutable, eternal, incomparable,
merciful, the father of all, the mother of the entire universe, all-supporting, the Lord of all, possessing the attributes of truth, intelligence, happiness, and so on: as all-pervading and the knower of all hearts, indestructible, deathless, everlasting, pure, and conscious; as inherently in a state of salvation, endless, the bestower of happiness, the giver of righteousness, wealth, comfort and salvation; - to speak of Him as endowed with such and similar other qualities and attributes, is to do His stuti (i.e., praying to Him), and to become absorbed in the contemplation of His essence, which is absolute Happiness, is termed upasana (i.e., holding communion with Him). The aforesaid Being, possessing the attribute of incorporeity etc., shall alone be adored, and naught beside.
- The Samaj shall perform Vedic sanskars, such as Anteshti, etc.
- The Vedas and the ancient Arsha Granths shall be studied and taught in the Arya Vidyala, and the true and right training, calculated to improve males and females, alone shall be imparted, on Vedic lines.
- In the interest of the country, two kinds of reform shall receive thorough attention to the Samaj, spiritual and worldly. There shall be uplifting in these two directions, for the promotion of purity; indeed, reform conducive to the welfare of entire mankind shall be undertaken by the Samaj.
- The Samaj shall believe in what is right and just only, i.e., in the true Vedic Dharma, destitute of all element, of partiality and standing the crucial test of all the pramanas - ocular demonstration and so forth. It shall never have faith in anything else if it can help it.
- The Samaj shall send learned men, of approved character, everywhere to preach truth.
- In the interests of the education of both males and females, separate schools shall be established, if possible, in all places. In the seminaries for females, the work of teaching and that of serving the students shall be carried on by females only, and in the schools for males, the responsibility of doing the same shall lie with males. Never shall these rules be infringed.
- The schools shall be looked after and maintained as the President of the Samaj shall direct.
- The President and the other members of the Samaj shall, for the maintenance of mutual good-will, keep their minds wholly divested of all feelings of pride, of willfulness, hate, anger, etc., and, with such vices shut out,
they shall, being free of enmity and pure of heart, love one another, even as each loves his/her ownself.
- When deliberating on a subject, that which has been, as the fruit of this deliberation, been ascertained to be in thorough accord with the principles of justice and universal benevolence, and absolutely true, the same shall be made known to the members and believed in by them. Acting thus in termed rising above bias or prejudice.
- He who conforms his conduct to the principles specified, and is righteous and endowed with true virtues, the same shall be admitted to the superior portion of the Samaj, while he who is otherwise than this, shall belong to the ordinary portion of the Samaj. But the individual who openly appears to be utterly depraved and debased, he shall be expelled from the Samaj. Such a step, however, shall not be dictated by prejudice; on the contrary, both the things specified shall be done after due deliberation by the exalted members of the Samaj, and not otherwise.
- The President and other Sabhasads of the Samaj shall ever strive, to the utmost of their power, to look after and improve the Arya Samaj, the Arya Vidyala, the Arya Prakash paper, and the finances of the Samaj.
- So long as an Arya Samajist can get a brother Arya Samajist to employ or to serve him, so long he should not employ or get anyone else to serve him. The relations in existence between these two should be the relations that ought to subsist between master and servant.
- Whenever an occasion for making a donation arises, as, for instance, in connection with a marriage, the birth of a son, the realization of a fortune, or a death in the family, and so on, the Arya Samajist concerned shall be expected to make a donation on such an occasion. No act is more meritorious, and the members shall always bear this fact in mind.
- Whenever an addition is made to the principles or rules above laid down, or whenever any of these is altered or amended, such an addition, alteration or amendment, shall invariably be the result of thorough deliberation on the subject by the exalted Sabhasads of the Samaj, and the nature of the same shall be previously made known to al the members.
inconvenient day, and Sunday was fixed upon as the Weekly Meeting day. The latter arrangement remains in force down to the present time, in almost all the Samajes in India.
After establishing a Samaj at Bombay, the Swami for the third time left for Ahmedabad. The �Swami Narain Creed,� so popular in the city and its suburbs, required a further exposure, and the reformer set about his task with his wonted energy, not leaving the station till the end of May, 1875.<<< Prev---------------------Next >>>
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"The man who resolves, to stick to the truth at
all costs, steadily rises in virtues. When his virtues raise his reputation
and prestige, he becomes all the more a devotee of truth. This devotion to
truth becomes an unerring source of power and greatness." Swami DayanandTranslation
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